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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract On attempting to manipulate or bend a boiler tube some 22 ft. long, sudden failure occurred at what appeared to be a butt weld in the tube. Externally, the weld reinforcement had been ground flush and the entire tube surface painted. Internally, the appearance and width of the heated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001194
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., but exceptionally high copper content was noticeable. Microstructural examination showed the damage was due to overheating and burning during preheating and bending. Furthermore, crack formation was promoted by precipitation of metallic copper that had penetrated into the austenitic grain boundaries under...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001497
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
.... The 4817 NiMo alloy steel pinion showed no indication of additional cracking, nor did the 4820 NiMo alloy steel gear. The mode of failure was tooth bending fatigue with the origin at the designed position: root radius at midsection of tooth. The load was well centered, and progression occurred for a long...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0092142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... a slat track ( Fig. 1 ), which supported the extendable portion of the leading edge of the wing on a military aircraft, failed by bending at one end after very short service. It was estimated that the slat track, fabricated from heat treated 4140 steel, had undergone only one high-load cycle. Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... in the shaft portion at the intersection of a 1.3 cm thick wall and a tapered surface at the bottom of the hole. The fatigue crack was influenced by one-way bending stresses initiated at the inner surface and progressed around the entire inner circumference. A heavily decarburized layer was detected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001496
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... bending fatigue of the gear from the reverse direction near the toe end. The cause of failure was a crossed-over tooth bearing condition that placed loads at the heel end when going forward and at the toe end when going in reverse. The condition was too consistent to be a deflection under load; therefore...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... should be tightened according to the specifications of the manufacturer, and the system should be periodically inspected for correct tightness. Bending fatigue Forgings Structural bolts Structural steel Fatigue fracture A portion of a large (19-mm, or 0.75-in., diam) structural steel bolt...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... Abstract Two A6 tool steel (free machining grade) shafts, parts of a clamping device used for bending 5.7 cm OD tubing on an 8.6 cm radius, failed simultaneously under a maximum clamping force of 54,430 kg. The shaft was imposed with cyclic tensile stresses due to the clamping force...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... by measurement checks. The presence of broken wire ends, which indicated that the rope failed by fatigue, was revealed by reverse bending of the section of the rope which was normally subjected to this flexing. It was found that minimum sheave diam for a 13-mm 18 x 7 wire rope was 43 cm and hence the currently...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0091092
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
.... Investigation (visual inspection, inspection records review, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and fractography) supported the conclusion that the fracture mode for both shafts was low-cycle rotating-bending fatigue initiating and propagating by combined torsional and reverse bending stresses...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 59 Tension and compression side of a gray iron loaded in bending. The fracture surface is devoid of any markings to indicate the fracture origin or direction of crack propagation. However, examination of the edge of the component at the fracture surface indicates that the tension side More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 72 Fracture surface of a railroad coupler that failed in bending. The dark, irregular region is a region of shrinkage porosity. The black “thumbnail” is the region of fatigue crack initiation. Chevrons (pointing to the black “fingernail”) are visible in the overload region. More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 74 Deep surface cracks that developed during a bending operation of a low-carbon steel. Courtesy of Worthington Industries Inc. More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 75 Micrograph of surface area of material before bending and cracking (shown in Fig. 74 ). Note the deep rolled-in oxide connecting to the outside surface. More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 22 Bolt fracture surface produced by unidirectional bending fatigue. The origin site can be located by tracing the centers of curvature of beach marks back to the thread root at the arrow. Source: Ref 4 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 23 Carbon steel shaft broken in rotating bending fatigue. Fatigue fracture initiated at numerous sites along a sharp snap ring groove; ratchet marks appear as shiny spots along the surface. Cracks coalesced into a single fatigue crack that—due to the bending stress distribution—grew most More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 24 Rotating bending fatigue failure of keyed medium-carbon steel shaft. Fatigue initiated at a corner of the keyway, as marked. Beach marks in that vicinity are concentric about the origin. As the fatigue crack grew, the bending stress distribution produced more rapid growth near More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 1 Fracture surface of a glass plate broken in bending. The fracture origin is at the top edge of the fracture surface, to the left of the center of the image. Optical microscope; reflected light; picture width ∼1 mm More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 4 Both halves of a silicon nitride bar broken in bending. The tensile surfaces are in contact with each other. The fracture origin appears to be a hole (pore) in the bottom piece, but the origin is really an inclusion, as seen on the top piece. Optical microscope; reflected light; picture More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 8 Fracture surface of a glass rod broken in bending. The fracture origin is at the top center of the image. Wallner lines are seen in the fracture mirror, which is bordered by mist and velocity hackle. Optical microscope; reflected light; picture width ∼2 mm More