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ball wear test

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A ball bearing in a military jet engine sustained heavy damage and was analyzed to determine the cause. Almost all of the balls and a portion of the outer race were found to be flaking, but there were no signs of damage on the inner race and cage. Tests (chemistry, hardness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... was observed. It was concluded that overheating was caused by lubricant flow was permitted by wear of the labyrinth seals. Positive rubbing seals and MIL-G-81322 grease lubricant were found to have longer life than those with the labyrinth seals and mineral-oil-paste lubricant on testing under simulated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... wear, the test is automatically stopped, and the lifetime of the test is recorded. Alternatively, the tests are suspended at different durations to study the wear rate. The characteristics of various types of RCF test methods are summarized as follows. Modified Four-Ball Machine Five-Ball Machine...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... during testing. Aircraft components Bearing steel Wind tunnels 52100 UNS G52986 Rolling-contact wear Background An accidental overspeed condition during wind tunnel testing resulted in the destruction of a propeller rotor. Applications The prop test rig (PTR) had been used...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., which can be useful for condition monitoring and wear mapping. Although the failure mode depends on the tribological conditions selected for individual investigation, some test conditions adopted in RCF tribometers can accelerate the RCF failure, for example, by either increased contact loading...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... bearings, and provides information on physics and testing of rolling-contact fatigue. Processes commonly used to produce bearings for demanding applications are also covered. coatings Hertzian contact theory rolling-contact fatigue rolling-element bearings surface-initiated fatigue wear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... individually for ease of referencing. Summary of microhardness testing on the bearing components, HRC values Table 1 Summary of microhardness testing on the bearing components, HRC values Depth from surface, inches OR IR, most damaged side Ball 0.005 66.3 66.5 60.1 0.01 65.4 65.4...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of ball cage Inner or outer rings out of square; abrasive matter in bearing Internal looseness from wear of raceway surfaces and rolling elements Abrasive matter in bearing because of insufficient or inefficient lubrication or ineffective filtration of lubricant Uneven wear in ball path Vibration...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... angularity and apparent density of a particle. Apparent density is ( R / r ) 3 × real reactive density. Source: Ref 16 Fig. 5 Comparison of wear surfaces for low-alloy steel specimens worn in (a) flow-through and (b) recycled slurry tests for 1 h and 1.67 h, respectively. Source: Ref 13...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... relative motion that is usually produced by vibration. There are exceptions, however, such as contact between balls and raceways in bearings and between mating surfaces in oscillating bearings and flexible couplings. Fretting Wear In general, fretting occurs between two tightly fitting surfaces...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
.... Ball mills Copper ores Impact Stresses White iron Impact wear Brittle fracture Two broken ball-mill liners from a copper-mine ore operation were submitted for failure analysis. These liners failed prematurely, having reached less than 20% of their expected life. Investigation Conclusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... standard sets forth comprehensive safety requirements and limitations of use, one of which states that a ball-peen hammer should never be struck against hard or hardened objects. All hammers must be marked with a warning to that effect as well as a caution to wear safety goggles. The warnings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... to these service conditions may exhibit pitting, surface cracking, indentation, wear, softening, and/or corrosion. 3 During service, a loaded bearing experiences elastic deformation at the contact zone between the rolling elements (balls or rollers) and the raceways. As a consequence, compressive stresses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... where W is the wear loss, V is the impact velocity, r is the ball radius, e is the impact energy, θ is the impact angle, and α, β, γ, and K are constants. The model was formed using a Taguchi method for design of experiments with level 4 and 16 tests. Taguchi is good for linear relationships...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... of balls under test was halved by gross contamination of the lubricant by water during the running period and, in a converse manner, the removal of the small quantity of water normally present in an oil produced an increase in the mean life of approximately 10%. The reason for the phenomenon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... times the specimen thickness at the centre, the wearing surface being on the tension side. The load was applied by means of a hydraulic press. The first strip was tested in the “ as received ” condition and it snapped without any significant prior deformation as soon as an appreciable load was applied...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... below the clamping assembly) Fig. 5 Fretting wear damage in electrical connectors Fig. 6 Illustration of fretting wear damage between a bone cement and a metallic femoral stem. Adapted from Ref 36 Fig. 7 Schematic of a basic fretting wear test and related fretting cycle...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... characteristicsFracture toughnessMicrostructureCorrosion resistance General fracture failure analysis procedural sequence Table 3 General fracture failure analysis procedural sequence Step 1: Determine prior history Review documentary evidence  Test certificates  Mechanical/wear test data  Pertinent...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of Mechanical Engineers , 1979 , p 257 – 265 13. Danks D.R. and Clayton P. , Comparison of the Wear Process for Eutectoid Rail Steels: Field and Laboratory Tests , Wear , Vol 120 , 1987 , p 233 – 250 10.1016/0043-1648(87)90069-X 14. Richardson R.C.D. , The Maximum...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as the features of impact wear testing apparatus such as ballistic impact wear apparatus and pivotal hammer impact wear apparatus. Most mechanical components continue to be functional beyond the zero wear limit, and their usefulness is normally connected with the loss of a specific depth of material. The article...