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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... growth per cycle, da/dN against cyclic stress intensity amplitude, ΔK, is shown in Fig. 2 . The best fit straight line (the so called “Paris equation”) to this data is: (Eq 1) da dN = 4.8 × 10 − 12 ( Δ K ) 3 (where da/dN is in m/cycle and ΔK in MPa m ) Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... sign. Contemporary models to predict plastic deformation utilize the “flow” (i.e., yield) surface via the plastic potential equation. Because any linear model to predict flow (e.g., the Tresca criterion) is discontinuous in principal stress space, it cannot predict plastic strains for several loading...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and a procedure to deal with stress by determining maximum values through stress transformation is described. The article provides the stress analysis equations of typical component geometries and discusses some of the implications of the stress analysis relative to failure in components. It focuses on linear...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of lubricant, and carries lubricant to the shaft as the shaft rotates. Shaft Whirl Equation 1 was described in the context of a shaft that was carrying a constant downward load. It could also apply to a weightless shaft that is out of balance. In this case, the contact is restricted to one location...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
.... The 5 Hz (300 cpm) frequency is easily perceived by the human body, particularly at night when other motion and noise are at a minimum. It also can excite low stiffness tructures such as lampshades and rocking chairs. The factory installed balancing devices to reduce the amount of force entering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Elevated-temperature-assisted inelastic deformation may occur by discrete obstacle resistance to dislocation motion, lattice resistance to dislocation motion, or twinning, as in the example in Ref 2 . Twinning will be omitted from the discussion here. The rate equations for temperature-assisted inelastic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Procedure The sample used in this investigation is a commercial HK40 alloy of chemical composition (in wt%) 0.42%C, 1.1%Mn, 1.4%Si, 25.6%Cr, 20.1%Ni and balanced iron. It was obtained from a steam reformer tube, which creep ruptured after approximately 35000 hours of service. The tube had an outside...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... at the center. The residual surface compression associated with heat treatment is large but decreases rather rapidly. The net stress represents a balance between these two competing factors and is shown schematically in Fig. 1 . To be consistent with observation, the maximum occurs in the vicinity of 7.6 mm...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the stresses experienced by the columnar and equiaxial grains, respectively. In the case of the analyzed buckets, the principal stresses distributed according to this equation are the tangential stresses due to the shearing force F, which includes the action of the centrifugal force, gas flow...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... 0.35–0.73 Phosphorus 0.010 0.008 0.035 Max Sulfur 0.004 0.002 0.040 Max Silicon 0.56 0.50 0.44–0.86 Chromium 1.31 1.32 0.94–1.56 Nickel 0.08 0.23 N/R Molybdenum 0.56 0.52 0.40–0.70 Copper 0.14 0.23 N/R Iron Balance Balance Balance N/R not required...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... can subsequently be used in the discussion and conclusions sections; therefore, extemporaneous data should not be included. Results should be presented using descriptions, tables, figures, charts, and other graphics. Mathematical and computational procedures and formulaic manipulations and equations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ASTM A517 … 0.026 … 0.03 0.023 0.02 0.025 0.5 0.18 0.13 Balance Inconel 625 0.3 … 9.46 3.81 0.32 Balance 21.12 0.42 0.34 0.08 0.48 Fig. 2 ( a ) Utilized explosive. ( b ) The variation of VOD versus thickness of explosive, measured through the cylinder expansion test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... on the finite-life line, P R ( N R / S a R ), the equation of the finite-life line is: (Eq 5) N = N R · ( S a R / S a ) k where k is the slope of the finite-life line. The slope k is typically characterized by values between 3 and 15. A low slope corresponds...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...” to “V8” is not listed in Table 1 because they had the same composition as the broken bell, “S,” and the cracked bell, “V1.” These bells compare favorably to the requirements as shown in the table; the elements that did not meet the requirements are shown in bold in the table. (a) Balance: Al...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...–10.0 ≤1.3 ≤0.6 ≤0.35 0.4–0.6 ≤0.5 NL Balance NL denotes element not listed Fig. 5 Compressive stress–strain response of the subject and exemplar aluminum hosels at room temperature and strain rate of 0.001/s. (We deduced that the aluminum alloy could be A360.0) Material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., especially near the final stages of cure (e.g., see the longer cure-time curves in Fig. 12 ). Figure 17 illustrates the T g -conversion relationship from data reported in Fig. 13 and 14 . All data can be seen to collapse to a single curve and are fit to the empirical DiBenedetto equation ( Ref 29...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... lubrication Hydrostatic Lubrication Two sliding surfaces can be separated by pumping a fluid into the contact region at a sufficient pressure. The contact region must be properly designed so that there is a symmetric or balanced contact-pressure distribution. A large volume of fluid will separate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... weather aging may accelerate the degradation of a material beyond a point where it will no longer represent the actual reaction that will occur over an extended time period. A key to accelerated weathering is always to find the balance between acceleration and correlation to generate meaningful results...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., as can incorporating sidewall beads and stiffener beads into the product design. More complex methods may be needed to address greater degrees of springback. Applying tension to the sidewall near the bottom of the press stroke helps to balance stress and minimize springback and curl. This can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... longitudinal section illustrated in Fig. 4 . Concomitant with the production of magnetite, hydrogen is generated in accordance with the aforementioned equation and where present in quantity can be ignited when released by the drilling of a hole. Fig. 3 Magnetite formation in bakers' oven tube...