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bainitic transformation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... The microstructure near the rupture edge was revealed by metallographic examination to consist of ferrite and acicular martensite or bainite. The microstructure and the observed lack of cold work indicated a temperature above the transformation temperature of 727 deg C had been reached. Swelling of the tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... pipe had become coarse-grained and acicular, and the microstructure of the welding seam had become predominantly martensitic as a result of the mixing of the weld metal with the fused pipe material. The chrome steel pipe had become partially transformed to martensite or bainite at the transition...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., a relatively hard transformation product; and to achieve the desired as-quenched hardness. The most common transformational products that may be formed from austenite in quench-hardenable steels are, in order of formation with decreasing cooling rate: martensite, bainite, pearlite, ferrite, and cementite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the presence of 1–6% retained austenite at various locations. Since the austenite is the softer phase compared with bainite, it will be expected that the transformation of rest of the bainite induced the mechanical stresses, upon cooling, which will be distributed equally in all directions. However...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... compared with sample 1, as indicated in Fig. 4 . When fracture occurred, the inner wall (not fractured), previously not exposed to hot gas flux, started to receive directly this flux. As a consequence, in this site, pearlite lost its typical lamellar aspect and was transformed predominantly in bainite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to have intermediate strength and toughness ( Fig. 3a ). Coarse grains of ferrite are observed indicative of low carbon ferrite phases ( Fig. 3a ). Feathery bainite forms just below the nose of the time temperature transformation curve [ 2 ] at intermediate cooling rates. Microstructure of a similar part...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... surface was identified around one of the folds and a fatigue crack initiated in the fold and propagated across the cheek. Properties representative of 4140 steel, quenched and tempered to a hardness of 20 to 22 HRC, were observed. Tempered bainite was revealed in the general microstructure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to the heat of welding ( Fig. 3 ). But the cracked pipe showed a ferrite-free mixed structure in the unaffected part consisting of pearlite and bainite phases ( Fig. 4 ). In the vicinity of the weld seam it had become coarse grained and was transformed into martensite ( Fig. 5 ). The cracking open...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001711
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... Nevertheless, temperature never reached A e , since there is no trace of duplex ferritic-martensitic or ferritic-bainitic zones, due to heating between A 1 and A 3 followed by transformations during cooling. Equations 1 and 2 show that a magnetite thickness of 11.42 mils implies an increase in the pipe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of bainite and austenite having a hardness (1-kg load) of 426 to 460 HV. Elsewhere, the structure of the HAZ was coarse and jagged bainite with a hardness of 313 to 363 HV. Examination of a section transverse to the weld disclosed that the structure of the flange forging contained pronounced banding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... disappeared from the structure of the chromium steel and the austenite has been transformed in some areas to Bainite. The inclusion itself has been transformed to pearlite as previously stated which proves that it is more alloy-deficient than the surrounding steel. In a pipe of austenitic 18/8 stainless...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... microstructure of the sample presented in Fig. 6 consisted of graphite flakes in an iron matrix, typical of gray cast iron. Etching in 2% nital revealed a bainite matrix with scattered massive carbides ( Fig. 7 ). Fig. 6 Micrograph showing graphite flakes characteristic of gray cast iron. Unetched. 64...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
....2017.01.035 56. Holzweissig M.J. , Uslu M.C. , Lambers H.-G. , Canadinc D. , and Maier H.J. , A Comparative Analysis of Austenite-to-Martensite and Austenite-to-Bainite Phase Transformation Kinetics in Steels , Mater. Res. Lett. , Vol 1 ( No. 3 ), 2013 , p 141 – 147...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... shaped lamellae. Some bainite was also present in the microstructure of rod section #3. The observed bainite has cementite lamellae with large spacing, offering weak resistance to acid attack of the ferrite. Rod section #1 had a duplex microstructure of ferrite/pearlite and martensite. The material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... breaker in the cutting tool or changing the microstructure of the workpiece steel. For example, heat treating AISI 1008 brake piston cups by reheating to the austenitizing region with a short soaking time and quenching transformed the microstructure from pearlite-ferrite to martensite-bainite in a matrix...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of the austenite to pearlite or bainite. Once past the temperature at the nose of the transformation curve, the cooling rate would decrease so that temperature equalization could be approached. This would minimize the transformation stresses when martensite begins to form. All quenchants must be temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... temperatures of 538 °C (1000 °F) or higher (well above the outlet temperature of 193 °C, or 380 °F). However, the absence of high-temperature transformation phases in the microstructure, such as bainite or martensite, indicates tube wall temperatures were below 732 °C (1350 °F) at the time of the rupture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... to austenitise the pearlite grains, which subsequently transformed to the bainitic type of structure, the centre region of the grains transforming to the “lower” and the outer portions to the “upper” variety. The presence of this structural difference served to indicate that the collars had been welded...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a large triaxial (i.e., tensile-hydrostatic) stress Fig. 10 Debonding associated with a MnS inclusion in a bainitic microstructure. Loading direction indicated. Source: Ref 30 Fig. 11 Debonding of a MnS particle in a 4140 quenched and tempered steel due to a bending stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... property modification through heat treatment is hardenability. Hardenability is a term used to quantify the relative response of a material to thermal treatment transformation to martensite based upon alloying elements and other variables. Many researchers have empirically determined the individual...