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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 1 Typical inspections. (a) Automated inspection installation for the fluorescent penetrant inspection of large workpieces, such as castings. The installation incorporates a complex roller conveyor system. (b) Retirement-for-Cause (RFC) inspection facility More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... fault trees are used to unify the analysis of failure modes caused by design errors, manufacturing and maintenance processes, materials, and so on, and to assess the probability of failure mode occurrence. It concludes with information on some of the approaches to automating the FMEA. failure mode...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... automated ultrasonic inspection supplemented by remote visual inspection. The inspection system provided the following capabilities: Thickness mapping Weld inspection Crack detection Flaw sizing Through-wall bleed-out Visual/photography Inspection Equipment All ultrasonic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and changes in material properties. Used on almost any material to detect surface and subsurface discontinuities. Also used for measuring material thickness and material property changes. Cost varies from inexpensive portable equipment to high precision, automated, stationary systems. Requires properly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... monitoring for continued operation of equipment such as pressurized vessels, piping systems, and storage tanks. Fitness-for-service assessments can be conducted at three levels (1, 2, and 3), with each level requiring increasing amounts of data and inspection of the equipment and level of expertise...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., low-, medium-, and, occasionally, high-nap cloths are used for final polishing. This step should be brief to minimize relief. Mechanical polishing can be automated to a high degree using a wide variety of devices ranging from relatively simple systems to rather sophisticated, minicomputer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Metals , Vol. 3 , 9th ed. , Metals Handbook, American Society for Metals , Metals Park, OH ( 1980 ) 16. Cabaĺın L.M. , Mateo M.P. , Laserna J.J. : Large area mapping of non-metallic inclusions in stainless steel by an automated system based on laser ablation , Spectrochim...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-, and, occasionally, high-nap cloths are used for final polishing. This step should be brief to minimize relief. Mechanical polishing can be automated to a high degree using a wide variety of devices ranging from relatively simple systems to rather sophisticated, minicomputer, or microprocessor-controlled devices...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The cracking did in fact stop as expected but excessive wear was occurring quite rapidly as compared with the previous design. This caused end users to replace the bushing quite often and was counter productive to the automated process which was a part of the whole system. At this stage it was necessary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to detection and characterization. There is a need to further advance the science of ultrasonic NDE to improve the inspectability of a large variety of material systems and to interpret the inspection results reliably and effectively. This requires the use of automated inspection data gathering techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... (cyclic/steady, unidirectional/reversing) Speed Lubricants and lubrication system characteristics Lubricant cleanliness and filtration Operating temperatures Counterface (shaft) material and finish Alignment It is necessary to understand the bearing geometry (shapes, grooving...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Today it is not uncommon for large 3-D solid models to be solved on PC-based computing systems. Figure 4 shows an example of just such a 3-D model that can be analyzed on a desktop computer. Fig. 4 Example of a three-dimensional half-symmetry finite element model of a housing Thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Automated eddy-current testing inspection systems were developed to attempt to improve POD over manual systems. This allowed the collection of signal magnitudes and corresponding crack sizes (known as “ a -hat,” or â , versus a data). The review of the data collected by these systems showed that the data...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and both general- and special-purpose applications of FEA. The special-purpose applications of FEA covered are piping and pressure vessel analysis, impact analysis, and microelectronic and microelectromechanical systems analysis. The article provides case histories that involved the use of FEA in failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... inspection methods are often very helpful. ET can be automated and has the capability to assess parts efficiently and in large quantities. Radiographic testing and UT both have the capability to obtain information throughout the bulk of the component to give insight into the location of embedded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... is typically a computerized, automated procedure, in which multiple transducers are mounted on a rigid head that moves axially and circumferentially along the length of the rotors. Details of the several commercially available methods of instrumentation, data acquisition, and processing can be found...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be a physical, mathematical, or logical representation of a physical system or process. accident reconstruction failure analysis modeling FAILURE ANALYSIS is generally defined as the investigation and analysis of parts or structures that have failed or appeared to have failed to perform...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... system. The intention here is simply to set the physical failure within a broader context and then to focus on assessing the design process evidence available within that context. The article purposely does not address issues such as manufacturing, operation, and maintenance, except as they relate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., the response surface method, and Monte Carlo sampling. A brief introduction to importance sampling, time-variant reliability, system reliability, and risk analysis and target reliabilities is also provided. The article examines the various application problems for which probabilistic analysis is an essential...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... pumps) or a specifically applied lubricant. It is usually the case that the more severe the duty of bearings the more precisely they will be made and the more likely there will be a support (lubrication) system to ensure long life and to prevent catastrophic failure. Bearing Materials The lowest...