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austenitizing temperature

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... from an excessive amount of retained austenite. This caused reduced wear resistance and thus rapid wear in service. Recommendations included avoiding an excessive austenitizing temperature and excessive cooling rates from the austenitizing temperature and controlling the chemical composition to avoid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...Abstract Abstract Chain link, a part of a mechanism for transferring hot or cold steel blooms into and out of a reheating furnace, broke after approximately four months of service. The link was cast from 2% Cr austenitic manganese steel and was subjected to repeated heating to temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... products that are present in steel. The first step in the transformation process is to heat the steel to its austenitizing temperature. The steel is then cooled rapidly to avoid the formation of pearlite, which is a relatively soft transformation product; to maximize the formation of martensite...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of failures during heat treatment, in subsequent processing steps, or in service. Each tool steel grade has a recommended austenitizing temperature range (generally rather narrow), a recommended quench medium, and recommended tempering temperatures and times for optimum properties. Some grades are more...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Metallography Microstructural Analysis Microscopic examination of a section of the cracked insert disclosed massive carbide particles and small spheroidal carbides precipitating at the grain boundaries. The matrix was comprised of untempered martensite ( Fig. 7 ). The estimated austenitizing temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... These observations are consistent with limitations (2000 Addendum to ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code) on the use of cold worked austenitic stainless steels for elevated temperature service. Annealing Creep strength 304L UNS S30403 304H UNS S30409 304 UNS S30400 Creep fracture/stress rupture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...; the latter causes flake-like spalling. Measures to prevent SCC include stress reduction, use of austenitic steels or nickel alloys not susceptible to grain boundary attack, use of ferritic chromium steels, surface slag removal, control of temperature and chloride concentration, and cathodic protection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
...Abstract Abstract An austenitic stainless steel (type 316/316L stainless steel, schedule 40, 64 mm (2.5 in.) diam and larger) piping network used in the fire-sprinkler system in a large saltwater passenger and car ferry failed by rapid leaking. Operating conditions involved stagnant seawater...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... was thus due to stress-corrosion cracking and additional corrosion due to ventilation elements. Because austenitic chromium nickel steels are prone to stress-corrosion cracking, particularly in the presence of chlorine compounds at high temperatures, and because austenitic rust- and acid-resistant steels...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract A forged pressure vessel made from high temperature austenitic steel X8Cr-Ni-MoVNb 16 13 K (DIN 1.4988) failed. The widest part of the burst had fine cracks on the internal wall running longitudinally. When the internal wall was cleaned, numerous even finer cracks were exposed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Austenitic stainless steel (X 10 Cr-Ni-Mo-Ti 18 10, Material No. 1.4571) cooling coils were found leaking in 15 spots after eight weeks of service in an apparatus in which ammonium sulfide solution was converted into ammonium sulfate. The external temperature of the coil...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Fragments of screen bars which as structural elements of a condenser had come into contact with cooling water from the mouth of a river were received. The screen bars were made of stainless austenitic Cr-Ni-Mo steel X 5 Cr-Ni-Mo18 10 (Material No. 1.4401). The bars were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... steel specs, but hardness and grain size were different. Reheat treatment of full-width specimens showed that coarse grain size (ASTM 2 to 3) was responsible for the brittle fracture, and excessively high temperature during austenitizing caused the large grain size in the failed strap. The fact...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... as the temperature decreased. Remarkably this did not occur at the boundaries of the newly formed austenitic grains but apparently at the undissolved nuclei of the original location. According to these tests a subsequent removal of this defect by solutioning is impractical because the annealing temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0065827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... temperature) impact strengths of 3 to 5 ft · lbf (4 to 6.8 J), hardnesses from 56 to 59 HRC, and retained austenite contents varying from a trace to 8% in failed knives. The alloy design program was established to produce a lower-cost composition (based on the cost to add various alloying elements...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract Heating elements, consisting of strips, 40 mm x 2 mm, of the widely used 80Ni-20Cr resistance heating alloy, and designed to withstand a temperature of 1175 deg C, were rendered unusable by scaling after a few months service in a through-type annealing furnace, Although...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to austenitic stainless steel tubing (type 321 stainless steel (ASME SA-213, grade TP321H)). The surface temperature of the tube was found to be higher than operating temperature in use earlier. The ferritic steel portion of the tube was found to be longitudinally split and heavily corroded in the region...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046874
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract The safety valve on a steam turbogenerator was set to open when the steam pressure reaches 2400 kPa (348 psi). The pressure had not exceeded 1790 kPa (260 psi) when the safety-valve spring shattered into 12 pieces. The steam temperature in the line varied from about 330 to 400...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... found where entire grains had fallen out, leaving behind microscopic cracks. The pot failed by intergranular corrosion because an unstabilized austenitic stainless steel containing more than 0.03% C had been sensitized and placed in contact in service with a corrosive medium at temperatures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Origins/Paths The cross section of an austenitized and quenched part showed that the fracture was intergranular and branched ( Fig. 2 ). High-temperature scale was present in the cracks. This scale was probably produced on the surface of the bar during its heating before forging. The scale...