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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract A recuperator used for preheating the combustion air for a rolling mill furnace failed after a relatively short service time because of leakage of the pipes in the colder part. The 6 % chrome steel pipes used for the warmer part connected by means of welding with austenitic electrodes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... austenitized. Displacement of metal on the outer raceway was revealed by elongation of grain structure. It was concluded that the failure of the raceway surface was due to incomplete austenitization caused by the improper heat treatment during flame hardening process. Antennas Austenitizing Bearing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in a chemical plant handling mixtures of organic liquids and dilute sulphuric acid having a pH value of 2–4 at temperatures of 80–90°C. It worked for approximately 20 minutes every two hours and failure occurred after some 1,200 hours service life. Intergranular attack in austenitic steels is promoted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...-generating turbine. Under normal service conditions, the steam temperature was 295 °C (565 °F), the air temperature was 425 °C (800 °F), and the mixture was at a combined pressure of 380 kPa (55 psia). The tube was seamless and was manufactured from type 321 austenitic stainless steel (0.04% C, 1.67% Mn...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... Abstract Failures of four different 300-series austenitic stainless steel biomedical fixation implants were examined. The device fractures were observed optically, and their surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Fractography identified fatigue to be the failure mode for all...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A solution containing 50 to 70% calcium chloride (pH 7.5 to 8.5) was concentrated by evaporation in a brick-lined vessel by passing steam at a pressure of 15 atmospheres through a system of heating coils made of austenitic stainless steel X 10 Cr-Ni-Mo-Ti 18 12 (Material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in the circumferential direction and penetrated nearly 2 mm into the pipe wall. The pipes were made of titanium-stabilized austenitic stainless steel X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2. Six hypotheses were considered during the investigation, which ultimately concluded that the failure was caused by liquation cracking due to overheating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...Abstract Abstract Chain link, a part of a mechanism for transferring hot or cold steel blooms into and out of a reheating furnace, broke after approximately four months of service. The link was cast from 2% Cr austenitic manganese steel and was subjected to repeated heating to temperatures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
.... The microstructure consisted of eutectic chromium carbides (Cr7C3) in a matrix of retained austenite and martensite intermingled with secondary carbides. Analysis (visual inspection and 500x view of sections etched with Marble's reagent) supported the conclusion that the low hardness resulted from an excessive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Following disruption of the austenitic stainless steel basket of a hydro-extractor used for the separation of crystals of salt (sodium chloride) from glycerin, samples of the broken parts were analyzed. Examination revealed that the fish-plates joining the reinforcing hoops...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... that the cracks were predominantly of the intergranular variety. In addition, transgranular cracks were present. Material was an austenitic stainless steel of the type specified but the absence of columbium and titanium in significant amounts showed that it was not stabilized against intergranular carbide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Weld-decay and stress-corrosion cracking developed in several similar all-welded vessels fabricated from austenitic stainless steel. During a periodic examination cracks were revealed at the external surface of one of the vessels. External patch welds had been applied...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to Fig. 4 of a fully austenitic matrix in uncorroded areas. 63× Fig. 6 Etched view corresponding to Fig. 4 of a part austenitic and part martensitic matrix in corroded areas. 63× Fig. 7 Etched view corresponding to Fig. 4 of a typical area in the weld zone, showing approximately...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract Practical examples of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and methods for its prevention were presented. Cracks in chloride-sensitive austenitic steels were very branched and transcrystalline. Etched cross sections of molybdenum-free samples showed chloride-induced cracks running...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0092148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... retained austenite in the failed cylinder to transform to martensite. The increase in volume resulted in sufficient size distortion to cause interference between the cylinder and the spool, seizing, and loss of flow control. The failed parts had been carburized in a process in which the carbon potential...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A rocket-motor case made of consumable-electrode vacuum arc remelted D-6ac alloy steel failed during hydrostatic proof-pressure testing. Close visual examination, magnetic-particle inspection, and hardness tests showed cracks that appeared to have occurred after austenitizing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract After about four years of service, cracks appeared on the internal or process-side surfaces of four evaporator pans in a sugar concentrator. The pans consisted of a Mo stabilized austenitic stainless steel inner vessel surrounded by a mild steel steam jacket. Corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... a cracked region of the second impeller revealed a porous zone in the corresponding position. Fig. 3 Microstructure of a specimen from impeller I. Etched with V2A pickle. 500 × The microstructure illustrated in Fig. 3 showing lamellar graphite and carbides in an austenitic matrix can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... of the teeth that came into contact with the opposing gear during engagement. The microstructure at the periphery of a worn tooth at its unworn side consisted of coarse acicular martensite with a large percentage of retained austenite. Pinion Failure: The teeth of the pinion exhibited severe spalling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract Type 316L (UNS S31603) austenitic stainless steel piping was installed as part of a storm-sewer treatment collection system in a manufacturing facility. Within six months of start-up, leaks were discovered. Investigation (on-site current flow testing, visual inspection, water tests...