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austenitic structural alloys

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...× The microstructure of the scale layer is shown in Fig. 6 . The oxidation has apparently proceeded initially on the austenite grain boundaries. The first voids formed on the grain boundaries ( Fig. 7 ). These observations suggest melting as a possible cause of the failure, but no traces of a eutectic structure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... disappeared from the structure of the chromium steel and the austenite has been transformed in some areas to Bainite. The inclusion itself has been transformed to pearlite as previously stated which proves that it is more alloy-deficient than the surrounding steel. In a pipe of austenitic 18/8 stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... between austenitic grain size and quench cracking Quench sensitivity Cracking and distortion increase as carbon equivalent (C eq ) is increased. Alloy is crack sensitive if C eq > 0.52, where: C eq = C + Mn 5 + Mo 5 + Cr 10 + Ni 10...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
.... The structure was found to be austenitic in the area where the grain-boundary precipitates appeared heaviest. The composition of the precipitates was analyzed using an electron microprobe to reveal presence of sulfur. Microstructural changes in the weld alloy at the interface were interpreted to be caused...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Fragments of screen bars which as structural elements of a condenser had come into contact with cooling water from the mouth of a river were received. The screen bars were made of stainless austenitic Cr-Ni-Mo steel X 5 Cr-Ni-Mo18 10 (Material No. 1.4401). The bars were fractured...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... hardenability for the section size involved. Breaker bars Castings Retained austenite Wear resistance Fe-2.75C-19.5Cr-1.1Mo (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) wear The nominal composition of this chromium alloy cast iron was Fe-2.75C-0.75Mn-0.5Si-0.5Ni-19.5Cr-1.1Mo. The measured hardness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... the austenitic manganese steel from which it was cast became embrittled after being reheated in the temperature range of 455 to 595 deg C (850 to 1100 deg F) for prolonged periods of time. The alloy was not suitable for this application, because of its metallurgical instability under service conditions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... white cast iron, martensitic cast iron, and austenitic manganese steel are all abrasion-resistant materials, martensitic cast irons may wear more slowly than the other materials under heavy blows or high compressive and structural stresses of crusher jaws. However, crusher jaws produced from these irons...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-temperature-transformation diagrams, also called isothermal transformation diagrams, are developed by heating small samples of steel to the temperature where austenite transformation structure is completely formed, that is, the austenitizing temperature (T A ), and then rapidly cooling to a temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
.... Analysis of Failed Implants Although different alloys and materials are used for the thousands of orthopedic fixation devices, this paper reports on four different failures that occurred for 300-series austenitic stainless steel implants. The use of austenitic stainless steels is separately addressed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
..., the failure occurred due to typical contact corrosion wherein the alloyed welding seam represented the less noble electrode. The martensitic structure may have contributed to the failure as well. Due to the typical nature of the failure, no recommendations were made. Pipe Recuperators Welded joints...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... causes flake-like spalling. Measures to prevent SCC include stress reduction, use of austenitic steels or nickel alloys not susceptible to grain boundary attack, use of ferritic chromium steels, surface slag removal, control of temperature and chloride concentration, and cathodic protection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... – 10.50 10.50 – 13.00 Molybdenum 0.18 0.16 — — Nitrogen 0.022 0.026 — — (a) Type 304L has a max. carbon of 0.035% with nickel of 8.00 to 12.00%. Type 304H has carbon of 0.04 to 0.10%. Wrought austenitic stainless steels, such as alloys 304L, 304, and 304H, have essentially...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A heat exchanger failed five years after going into service in an ammonia synthesis plant. Its container, made of Cr-Mo alloy steel (Material No. 1.7362), operated in an environment that did not exceed 400 deg C or 600 atm of hydrogen partial pressure. X-ray examination revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Surface Examination Macrofractography The fracture of the wire lengths exhibited an intergranular texture. The fracture was normal to the axis of the belt weave. Metallography Microstructural Analysis The sample of new material revealed a fully austenitic structure with an ASTM grain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... made from Cr-Mo steel (Material No. 1.7225) according to DIN 17200. It was found that the bolts were not made from a suitable alloy steel, but were welded together from two unsuitable steels, one of which lacked sufficient strength. The austenitic weld seams showed hot tears and were not welded through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... with finely dispersed carbides. The ferrite grains are surrounded by ledeburitic eutectic. Such a structure is normal for this alloy. In the part of the flange still possessing the original cast structure the cracks run mainly across the ledeburite eutectic i.e. across the brittle structural component...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract A coil made of a nickel-chromium alloy (Material No. 2.4869) with approx. 80Ni and 20Cr had burned through after a brief period of operation as a heating element in a brazing furnace. The protective atmosphere consisted of an incompletely combusted coal gas. Furnace temperature reached...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... stainless steel filler metal to form a fillet between the handle and the cover. The structure was found to contain a zone of brittle martensite in the portion of the weld adjacent to the low-carbon steel handle; fracture had occurred in this zone. The brittle martensite layer in the weld was the result...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... This postulate was confirmed with near-equiatomic NiTi alloys; both the martensitic form (B19′ structure) and the “austenitic” form (B2 structure) are anomalously resistant to low-cycle fatigue ( Ref 13 ) and, it turned out, to liquid-impact erosion ( Ref 8 , 14 ). Mitigation and Repair of Liquid- Impact...