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austenitic steels

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract Practical examples of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and methods for its prevention were presented. Cracks in chloride-sensitive austenitic steels were very branched and transcrystalline. Etched cross sections of molybdenum-free samples showed chloride-induced cracks running...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... been in use in a chemical plant handling mixtures of organic liquids and dilute sulphuric acid having a pH value of 2–4 at temperatures of 80–90°C. It worked for approximately 20 minutes every two hours and failure occurred after some 1,200 hours service life. Intergranular attack in austenitic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract A forged pressure vessel made from high temperature austenitic steel X8Cr-Ni-MoVNb 16 13 K (DIN 1.4988) failed. The widest part of the burst had fine cracks on the internal wall running longitudinally. When the internal wall was cleaned, numerous even finer cracks were exposed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the lower pearlite range (Troostite). In a pipe of 18-8 austenitic stainless steel a weakly magnetizable spot of limited size was found. This inclusion too was probably more alloy-deficient than the austenitic steel, similar to the ones described above. All three cases were casting defects. Inclusions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Fragments of screen bars which as structural elements of a condenser had come into contact with cooling water from the mouth of a river were received. The screen bars were made of stainless austenitic Cr-Ni-Mo steel X 5 Cr-Ni-Mo18 10 (Material No. 1.4401). The bars were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Austenitic stainless steel (X 10 Cr-Ni-Mo-Ti 18 10, Material No. 1.4571) cooling coils were found leaking in 15 spots after eight weeks of service in an apparatus in which ammonium sulfide solution was converted into ammonium sulfate. The external temperature of the coil...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract Forged austenitic steel rings used on rotor shafts in two 100,000 kW generators burst from overstressing in a region of ventilation holes. A variety of causes contributed to the brittle fractures in the ductile austenitic alloy, including stress concentration by holes, work...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... titanium stabilized austenitic steel. It is probable that had the basket been subjected to a periodic inspection by a competent person, this failure would not have occurred. The second case concerned a continuous duty centrifuge operating at 2200 rpm. Fracture had occurred at the circumferential weld...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... casting. Cast iron, gray cast iron, malleable irons, ductile iron, low-alloy steel castings, austenitic steels, corrosion-resistant castings, and cast aluminum alloys are the materials discussed. The article describes the general types of discontinuities or imperfections for traditional casting with sand...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001735
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract A sample tube was removed from a reformer furnace for life assessment after 69,000 h of service. Sections were cut from the tube, which was a spindle cast A297 Grade HK 40 (25 Cr, 20 Ni, 0.4 C) austenitic steel of 122.5 mm OD and 10.5 mm nominal wall thickness. They were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A solution containing 50 to 70% calcium chloride (pH 7.5 to 8.5) was concentrated by evaporation in a brick-lined vessel by passing steam at a pressure of 15 atmospheres through a system of heating coils made of austenitic stainless steel X 10 Cr-Ni-Mo-Ti 18 12 (Material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Following disruption of the austenitic stainless steel basket of a hydro-extractor used for the separation of crystals of salt (sodium chloride) from glycerin, samples of the broken parts were analyzed. Examination revealed that the fish-plates joining the reinforcing hoops...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Weld-decay and stress-corrosion cracking developed in several similar all-welded vessels fabricated from austenitic stainless steel. During a periodic examination cracks were revealed at the external surface of one of the vessels. External patch welds had been applied...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... that the cracks were predominantly of the intergranular variety. In addition, transgranular cracks were present. Material was an austenitic stainless steel of the type specified but the absence of columbium and titanium in significant amounts showed that it was not stabilized against intergranular carbide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract After about four years of service, cracks appeared on the internal or process-side surfaces of four evaporator pans in a sugar concentrator. The pans consisted of a Mo stabilized austenitic stainless steel inner vessel surrounded by a mild steel steam jacket. Corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... temperature was 295 °C (565 °F), the air temperature was 425 °C (800 °F), and the mixture was at a combined pressure of 380 kPa (55 psia). The tube was seamless and was manufactured from type 321 austenitic stainless steel (0.04% C, 1.67% Mn, 1.07% Si, 0.040% P, 0.006% S, 17.50% Cr, 9.77% Ni, 0.27% Mo...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... was thus due to stress-corrosion cracking and additional corrosion due to ventilation elements. Because austenitic chromium nickel steels are prone to stress-corrosion cracking, particularly in the presence of chlorine compounds at high temperatures, and because austenitic rust- and acid-resistant steels...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... tanks Weld decay Welded joints Austenitic stainless steel Intergranular corrosion “Weld decay” is the term commonly applied to a form of intergranular corrosion to which certain austenitic steels are susceptible, particularly after being heated in the range 550–850°C. The effect first showed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... steel, failed by fatigue fracture, and the other, made of 316 austenitic stainless steel, experienced a similar fracture, which was promoted by the presence of nonmetallic inclusion particles. pump shafts fracture sulfide inclusions stainless steel fatigue striations cleavage microstructural...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to austenitic stainless steel tubing (type 321 stainless steel (ASME SA-213, grade TP321H)). The surface temperature of the tube was found to be higher than operating temperature in use earlier. The ferritic steel portion of the tube was found to be longitudinally split and heavily corroded in the region...