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austenite-to-ferrite transformation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... transformation temperature for austenite formation, Ac 3 , also depends on starting microstructure. Figure 7 shows experimentally measured Ac 3 temperatures for 4130 steel with three starting microstructures produced by annealing (ferrite and widely dispersed carbides) or by quenching and tempering at either...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., a relatively hard transformation product; and to achieve the desired as-quenched hardness. The most common transformational products that may be formed from austenite in quench-hardenable steels are, in order of formation with decreasing cooling rate: martensite, bainite, pearlite, ferrite, and cementite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... that the inclusion has reached the (α + γ) — region during annealing of the chromium steel that took place between 750 and 800°C according to specifications. The structure of the chromium steel consisted of speroidal carbide in a ferritic matrix. The carbon has gone into solution and transformed into carbide grains...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., Specification for General Requirements for Carbon, Ferritic Alloy, and Austenitic Alloy Steel Tubes , American Society of Mechanical Engineers , New York, NY , 2001 . 11. Borden M.P. , private communication, ABB Alstrom Power Corp. , Windsor, CT , 1999 . 12. Chung Y...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... hypochlorite solution. It was determined that the assemblies failed due to an austenite-martensite galvanic couple activated by a chlorine bearing electrolyte. The martensitic areas resulted from a transformation during cold-forming operations. Solution annealing after forming, revision of the design...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...) . Figure 7(e) shows the IGHAZ that was partially austenitized during the heating part of the thermal cycle. The part that does not transform into austenite becomes tempered. Microstructure in this zone consists of refined ferrite and pearlite with minor amount of tempered martensite as seen in Fig. 7(e...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in the 45° regions near the ends of the tank. In contrast, the microstructure of side B ( Fig. 7 ) consists of equiaxed ferrite and pearlite, indicating side B transformed to austenite and then cooled without quenching. The original plastic deformation is no longer present within the microstructure of side...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) is satisfactory Fig. 10 4140 steel slat track from a military aircraft wing. The track bent because one end did not become fully austenitic during heat treatment, producing a low-strength structure of ferrite and tempered martensite. Fig. 13 Gas-nitrided 4140 steel (27–31 HRC) drive-gear...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in a precipitation-hardening alloy, with a corresponding loss in strength. It is well known to metallurgists that exposure to cryogenic temperatures may cause cracking in a martensitic steel due to the volume change accompanying the transformation of retained austenite. What may not be as well appreciated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... with cold-drawn music wire. In music wire the ferrite grains and pearlite colonies are severely deformed, and any prior austenite grain boundaries are destroyed during the drawing operation. Indeed, longitudinal metallographic sections of the wires revealed highly deformed ferrite and pearlite, the normal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... breaker in the cutting tool or changing the microstructure of the workpiece steel. For example, heat treating AISI 1008 brake piston cups by reheating to the austenitizing region with a short soaking time and quenching transformed the microstructure from pearlite-ferrite to martensite-bainite in a matrix...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of a steel low in carbon, The area in Fig. 5 is already carburized considerably but the steel is still hypo-eutectoid as indicated by the precipitation of ferrite at the austenitic grainboundaries. Further transformation has taken place in the pearlite stage and partly into the intermediate and martensitic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of the welding seam was not austenitic but had become predominantly martensitic ( Fig. 5 ) as a result of the mixing of the weld metal with the fused pipe material. The chrome steel pipe had a structure composed of ferrite with finely dispersed carbides ( Fig. 6 ). At the transition to the weld it had partially...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... in a section through the end crater, Etch: nital. 50 × Fig. 6 As Fig. 5 . 200 × Fig. 7 As Fig. 5 . 500 × Fig. 8 MnS inclusions and ferrite network at the austenite grain boundaries in longitudinal section through the starting point of the weld seam, Etch: picral. 500...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... leads to the higher hardness. The banding resulted from partial austenitizing, which caused the original banded ferrite and pearlite microstructure to transform to bands of very hard martensite and bands of ferrite/pearlite. The presence of the hard martensite bands combined with MnS inclusions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... The cold worked wires gave a similar magnetic response to that of delta ferrite levels commonly found in austenitic stainless steel castings and welds. Ref 1 , 2 , 3 Such responses are anticipated when the cold working process induces a transformation to martensite. The low magnetic response...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to the heat of welding ( Fig. 3 ). But the cracked pipe showed a ferrite-free mixed structure in the unaffected part consisting of pearlite and bainite phases ( Fig. 4 ). In the vicinity of the weld seam it had become coarse grained and was transformed into martensite ( Fig. 5 ). The cracking open...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... carbides, and finishing (where the deformation is accumulated in the austenite in order to obtain the finest ferrite possible after the allotropic transformation), in the same fashion as described in previous work [ 10 ]. In order to achieve this small grain size microstructure, the composition...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of ferrite and upper transformation products (pearlite and bainite) resulting from the quenching effect of escaping water or steam on the partly austenitic structure existing at the instant of rupture ( Fig. 10b ). Fig. 10 Typical microstructures of 0.18% C steel boiler tubes that ruptured as a result...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-8_17 9. “ Standard Test Methods for Estimating the Depth of Decarburization of Steel Specimens ,” E 1077, Vol 03.01 , American Society for Testing and Materials 10. Sedriks A.J. and Mulhearn T.O. , Austenitic Manganese Steel: Structure and Properties of Decarburized Layer...