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austenite grain growth

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001531
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
..., toughness, and ductility are mainly determined by the carbon content of wheel steels. The fatigue crack growth resistance is insensitive to composition and microstructure, while the fatigue crack initiation life increases with the decrease of austenite grain size and pearlite colony size. The dynamic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of grain-boundary films, which produce a brittle structure after tempering ( Ref 4 ). The steel austenitizing temperature is a compromise between achieving rapid solution and diffusion of carbon, and minimizing grain growth. A fine-grained steel may be heated to a temperature for rapid austenitization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-Induced Intergranular Fracture Liquid Metal Induced Embrittlement Grain boundaries or the preferred path of crack growth can become embrittled by a variety of environmental conditions, such as hydrogen embrittlement, stress-corrosion cracking (SCC), and corrosion. If the process occurs...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., are used to distinguish between ductile and brittle cracking mechanisms in the grain boundaries. This distinction, in some cases, may be helpful for appropriate evaluation of cause and corrective action. Mechanisms of IG Fracture On the atomic scale, crack growth occurs by any one or a combination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... The petrochemical industries make extensive use of centrifugally cast tubular HK austenitic alloys in conditions where a material of high resistance at elevated temperatures and corrosive environments is required. In the as-cast condition, its microstructure consists of columnar grains of austenite elongated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0091048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... through the weld. 5.9×. (c) Metallographic profile of the weld near the cracking, showing melt-through, grain growth, and precipitation. 8.9×. (d) Grain-boundary precipitates in the weld zone. 119×. (c) and (d) were etched with Vilella's reagent followed by electrolytic etching in 10% oxalic acid...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., specifically oriented grains tend to crack, leaving a shiny, faceted appearance easily differentiated from dull and fibrous, dimple-rupture features. Cleavage in a steel sample is shown in Fig. 4 . Face-centered-cubic (fcc) metals (for example, copper, aluminum, nickel, and austenitic steels) exhibit...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to the extent to which grain growth and austenitization occur; into a coarse grained HAZ (CGHAZ), a fine grained HAZ (FGHAZ) and intercritical HAZ (IGHAZ). Figure 7(c) shows the CGHAZ of the reference un-cracked specimen as observed from the capping surface. Since this zone is located adjacent to the weld...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of environmentally assisted cracking (for example, transgranular stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels). High-nitrogen austenitic stainless may also be less ductile during rapid crack growth. Fig. 4 Cleavage fracture in a carbon steel component. Scanning electron micrograph. Original...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... exposing a defect. Inside the hole on the weld filler side ( Figure 4 ), there is the appearance of intergranular attack in the structure. There is a suggestion of retention of ferrite phase along with loss of austenite grains. However, the appearance is subject to interpretation. Fig. 4...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that cracked just after heat treatment. (a) Cracks accentuated with magnetic particles. (b) Microstructural examination revealed a badly overaustenitized condition with a heavy grain-boundary carbide film, coarse plate martensite, and unstable retained austenite. Etched with 3% nital. 490× Fig. 18...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was not present in the forged stock and was not typical of the forging process. The suspected cause was uneven flow of material during the forging process, which resulted in stagnant areas where grain growth occurred. Microscopic examination of the parts revealed large grain areas near the parting line. The rest...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... during BLEVEs. The microstructural study showed that the tank steel was NOT austenitized prior to the BLEVE, nor was any evidence found of less ductile transformation products formed due to propane quenching of fire-induced austenite. Unstable crack growth may have begun when two stress-rupture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... analysis fatigue strength stainless steel (duplex wrought stainless steel) 316 (austenitic wrought stainless steel) UNS S31600 Introduction The petrochemical industry is one of the most dynamic segments of the world economy, and its growth in the last years has led to the development of new...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to be that of 18CrNi3Mo steel. Investigators also found evidence of inclusions and prior austenite grain size, although it was determined that neither played a role in the failure. Rather, according to test data, the failure occurred because of stress concentration (due to geometric discontinuities along the tooth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... into the wire, indicating the OD was indeed the fracture origin ( Fig. 2 ). Detailed examination of the origins revealed intergranular fracture between equiaxed, presumably prior austenite, grains that exhibited decreasing grain size inward from the surface ( Fig. 3 ). Fig. 2 SEM image showing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... analysis, metallographic analysis, and simulated-service tests. It provides case studies for the analysis of SCC service failures and their occurrence in steels, stainless steels, and commercial alloys of aluminum, copper, magnesium, and titanium. aluminum alloys austenitic stainless steel carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... During normal operations, the sleeve is subjected to very high temperatures. As per the observation of the microstructure at the failed area, it had revealed that the metal had undergone severe internal oxidation at the edge of the failed sample ( Fig. 9 ). Grain growth occurs in the austenitic steels...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... austenite grain boundaries can exhibit intermittent discontinuous areas of fatigue fracture along the ferrite network ( Ref 27 ). Fatigue fracture within these ferrite layers is reportedly flat and featureless. Fatigue crack propagation in most structural alloys is typically transgranular. However...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... austenitic stainless steel tested in rotating bending. (a) Fine striations were located midway between origin and final overload fracture, while (b) coarse striations were located closer to the overload area. Overall direction of crack growth in these scanning electron microscopy views is from lower left...