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attack-polishing solutions

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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 52 Micrograph of high-temperature hydrogen attack of postweld heat treated carbon steel in hydrogen service. (a) Etched with 2% nital solution to show weld and heat-affected zone (HAZ). (b) As-polished to show fissures, including an almost through-wall crack on the HAZ on the left. Source More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was removed, it was discovered that the stainless steel had been attacked beneath the rust deposits. Testing Procedure and Results Surface Examination Scanning Electron Microscopy/Fractography Figure 1 shows an SEM fractograph of a portion of a heater where severe cracking was evident. At high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract Dezincification is a particular form of corrosive attack which may occur in a variety of environments and to which some brasses are susceptible. It is favored by waters having a high oxygen, carbon dioxide, or chloride content, and is accelerated by elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
...Abstract Abstract The corner of a welded sheet construction made from austenitic corrosion-resistant chromium-nickel steel showed corrosive attack of the outer sheet. This attack was most severe at the points subjected to the greatest heat during welding. Particularly large amounts of weld...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... was principally carbon dioxide dissolved in water condensed from the gas stream, with organic acids possibly an aggravating factor. A gas analysis showed no other corrosive agents. No metallurgical or fabrication defects were found in the carbon steel part. The mode of attack was corrosion-erosion, caused...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... the sections after the usual etching with V2A-Beize which only attacks the austenitic matrix, were first etched electrolytically in a 1:10 dilution of saturated ammonia water at a terminal voltage of 1.5 V. This served to dissolve the chromium carbide and color it by means of a brown precipitate. Immediately...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to launch. Exposures to the hydroxy-acetic acid decontamination solution and the Turco ® cleaning solution were also performed to determine if they were corrosive to the sensitized microstructure of the AM-355 poppet. It was observed that the decontaminant does attack the grain boundaries if left...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0089682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... (18Cr-10Ni-3.2Mo). A sample was taken from the deeply attacked area ( Fig. 1 ). The corrosion was occurring along grain boundaries. Micrographs from these regions showed σ phase present in the ferrite ( Fig. 1b ) and also carbides ( Fig. 1c ). A 10 N KOH electrolytic etch was used to bring out the σ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... on the surface, pickling and passivation processes resulted in severe pitting. Remedial Action Component A was reused after removing the intergranularly attacked layer and conducting re-solution annealing. Component B was reused after polishing to remove the pits and the severe machining marks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Dezincification is a particular form of corrosive attack which may occur in a variety of environments and to which some brasses are susceptible. It is favoured by waters having a high oxygen, carbon dioxide, or chloride content, and is accelerated by elevated temperatures and low water velocities...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001704
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
.... The examinations revealed a classic case of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC), which preferentially attacked the heat affected zones of the tank welds, resulting in the leaks. Heat affected zone Leakage Water tanks Welded joints 304 UNS S30400 Biological corrosion The experienced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Optical micrograph of the typical shaft microstructure, which consisted of tempered lath martensite. Longitudinal view. Etched in Vilella's reagent. 142× Crack Origin/Paths The as-polished microstructure of sample B ( Fig. 7 ), shows intergranular attack originating at the outside cylindrical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...). The corrosion occurred at welds and consisted of large subsurface void formations with pinhole penetrations of the surfaces. Corrosive attack initiated in the heat affected zones of the welds, usually immediately adjacent to fusion lines. Stepwise grinding, polishing, and etching through the affected areas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... With regard to retubing, it was recommended that the units be cleaned and dried before storage or, alternatively, flushed with fresh inhibitor solutions known to provide adequate protection for the storage period and conditions anticipated. Attack would probably have been much less severe had the units been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... bath is very useful in speeding up the cleaning process. Use of a mild acid or alkali, depending on the metal. A solution that attacks the deposits but not the underlying metal is required. The use of cellulose acetate replicas to lift debris from the surface. If this method is used...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., nonscratching brush Washing with organic solvents Use of an ultrasonic cleaning bath and appropriate solvents. The use of an ultrasonic cleaning bath is very useful in speeding up the cleaning process. Use of a mild acid or alkali, depending on the metal. A solution that attacks the deposits...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the crack, it was concluded that the attack/crack originated on the inside surface. A sample from location 7 in Fig. 1 , which contained a crack, was polished and etched in a solution containing 30 g FeCl 3 , 90 mL HCl, and 360 ML H 2 O, then observed in an optical microscope. The crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... that the cracking was produced by stress corrosion as the combined result of: residual forming and service stresses; the concentration of tensile stress at outer square corners of the pierced slots; and preferential corrosive attack along the grain boundaries as a result of high humidity and occasional condensation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... It was concluded by series of controlled crack-propagation-rate stress-corrosion tests that A302, grade B, steel was susceptible to transgranular stress-corrosion attack in constant extension rate testing with as low as 1 ppm chloride present. It was recommended to maintain the coolant environment low in oxygen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
..., which seated against the nut. The brass seat and stem show little corrosion. However, the alpha-beta brass nut and welded tip showed extensive dezincification. This process of removal of Zn and the retention of Cu began in the high Zn beta phase, but eventually both phases were attacked. The depth...