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atomic force microscopy

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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 45 Working principle of an atomic force microscopy instrument More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article discusses the operating principles, advantages, and limitations of scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy that are used to analyze the surface chemistry of plastics. atomic force...
Image
Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 2 Schematic diagrams of (a) halloysite crystalline structure and (b) halloysite nanotubes. Images of halloysite nanotubes by (c) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and (d) atomic force microscopy (AFM). Source: Ref 17 More
Image
Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 1 Depth of analysis, depth of profiling, and length scale presentation in surface examination and analysis of polymers. AFM, atomic force microscopy; SEM, scanning electron microscopy; XPS, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; ToF-SIMS, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry; EDS More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abbreviations and Symbols a crack length ac critical crack length at.% atomic percent A area; ratio of the alternating stress amplitude to the mean stress A cross-sectional area of weld A angstrom Accm in hypereutectoid steel, temperature at which cementite completes solution in austenite Ac1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... measurements (typically of substrate), including: Physical measurements Optical measurements Interferometry Atomic force microscopy (AFM) Mass Loss Measurements Using measured mass loss is a common method for measuring volume loss, especially when the density of the polymer can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... are intended to undergo cyclic loads from repeated body motion, the risk of fatigue fracture exists, similar to any engineered component subject to such an environment. For knee and hip implants, these forces are generally caused by weight-bearing loads associated with daily activities such as walking, stair...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001721
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... in the brittle failure of a normally ductile material. Many different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the phenomena of SCC and propagation of the crack. Some of the more popular ones include: hydrogen embrittlement, adsorption induced cleavage, atomic surface mobility, film rupture, and film induced...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microstructure of metallic materials. This article highlights the development of SEM technology and describes the operation of basic systems in an SEM, including the electron optical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... preparation scanning electron microscope scanning electron microscopy THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microscopic features of most solid materials. Compared to the light microscope, it expands the resolution range by more than 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... electron must be high enough to overcome the binding force that holds the electron to the atom whose ejection starts the process of x-ray emission. For example, if a copper K α x-ray of 8.04 keV of energy is to be generated, then an amount of energy greater than 8.04 keV must be absorbed by the atom...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., containing a beam stop. The protons induce radiation damage effects in the window by displacing atoms, enhancing diffusion, and creating impurity atoms through nuclear reactions. During its service life, the window, which is the subject of this report, received a maximum damage level of 20 displacements per...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... The broken marriage bolt Fig. 4 The broken marriage bolts in hollow shaft Experimental Procedure and Results Chemical Analysis To determine the grade of the alloy, one piece was cut from the failed marriage bolt and tested using atomic absorption spectrometry. According...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., exhibit poor contrast in the SEM and are best viewed by light microscopy. When atomic number contrast or topographic contrast is strong, the SEM provides good structural images, particularly above 500× ( Ref 3 ). Again, because of the limitations and advantages of each instrument, they are complementary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... mechanical properties on a very small scale, with features less than 100 nm across. It is used in conjunction with atomic force microscopy. There is currently debate regarding the reliability and efficacy of the data obtained using this technique; thus, great care should be taken with the use of these data...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... examination. Surprisingly, the clamping force of the vise and stress from sectioning was sufficient to cause additional multiple fractures. Scanning Electron Microscopy/EDS A Leica S-200 scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with a light element detecting energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... magnification range as the LM, but examination with the latter is more efficient. Contrast mechanisms for viewing microstructures are different for the LM and SEM. Many microstructures, for example, tempered martensite, exhibit poor contrast in the SEM and are best viewed by light microscopy. When atomic number...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... ranging from 50 to 70 nm and lengths in the range of 0.5 to 1 μm ( Ref 10 , 16 ). Fig. 2 Schematic diagrams of (a) halloysite crystalline structure and (b) halloysite nanotubes. Images of halloysite nanotubes by (c) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and (d) atomic force microscopy (AFM...