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atomic dimensions

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...) and LF14 (ULS) failed crankshafts and broken at ambient (room) temperature. A combined scanning electron microscope and Auger spectrometer capable of analyzing approximately a 15 atom depth of surface composition were used to observe the planar dimpled facets within the fracture and to analyze spherical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... dimensions of the analyzed particles constituting the segregates. Fig. 9 EPMA micrographs of typical carbide segregation in failed roll. (a) SE image. (b) BSE image showing atomic number contrast. (c) Cr x-ray dot map. (d) V x-ray dot map. (e) Mo x-ray dot map. (f) W x-ray dot map. (g) Fe x-ray dot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001098
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... length of 2 in. (50 mm). There were 10 threads per inch, with a nominal major diameter of 0.745 in. (18.9 mm). These dimensions are consistent with the specified screw dimensions. As shown in Fig. 1 , four of the six screws (No. 1, 3, 5, and 6) contained one fracture location, while the other two (No. 2...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the material by lowering the bond strength between metal atoms. This theory is the one that is most applicable to the type of hydrogen embrittlement generally found in newly processed parts that crack during shipping or are found cracked at some point during the assembly process. Grain boundaries of steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The decohesion theory ( Ref 2 ) holds that dissolved hydrogen tends to migrate toward regions of hydrostatic (often termed as triaxial) tensile stress and weakens the material by lowering the bond strength between metal atoms. This theory is the one that is most applicable to the type of hydrogen embrittlement...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Common wet chemical analysis methods for metals include atomic absorption, where a beam of light is directed through a solution of known concentration prepared by dissolving metal chips in the proper acid mixture. The light is absorbed preferentially at certain wavelengths by certain elements. Thus...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... constituents or phases ( Ref 32 ), and fracture surface fractal dimension ( Ref 33 , 34 ) can be estimated from profilometric data. A fracture surface can be conveniently observed using an SEM. In most cases, no special specimen preparation is required for SEM fractography. Fractography by SEM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... coefficient of thermal expansion 28Cr3SiNiWMoV (chromium hot-worked steel) Introduction The increase in temperature increases the thermal vibration pushing the atoms apart, increasing their mean spacing, and causing thermal expansion ( α ). Perhaps the most important physical property of steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006922
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... life or major property degradation, and/or if methods to avoid possible failure are known, appropriate warnings and instructions must be provided ( Ref 8 , 9 ). Material Selection Process Plastics are formed of chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms, and they may also include other atoms...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... mill operating environment. The fragmented samples of spalled rolls were cleaned with acetone and examined with respect to their visual appearance, fracture features, and microstructural characteristics. For optical microscopy, specimens of around 25 × 10 × 15 mm dimensions were cut along...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... 2 – 7 Composition Submolecular Structure Most engineering plastics are based on organic (carbon-base) polymers. Table 2 lists common atoms found in plastics and gives both the electronegativity (relative tendency to attract electrons) of the atom and the number of bonds typically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to metals, intermetallics, and ceramics and glasses, polymers also have a very low coordination number (CN), which is defined as the number of cation/anion (i.e., positive-ion/negative-ion) near neighbors. The very low CNs of polymers, in addition to the prevalence of light atoms such as carbon and hydrogen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... nodules demands mobility of carbon atoms available from the dissolution of pre-existing carbides having compositions of the form M x C y . As with any reaction depending on diffusion, the temperature to which the material is exposed is a determining factor in the rate of the process. In the 1950s...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... for carbon from the pipe surface is not only through grain interior, but also through grain boundary. Figure 4 shows the zone of carbide and the zone of metal and carbon. The zone of metal and carbon has lower atomic bonding strength. This condition can be seen by the height of metal and carbon zone...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006913
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Consequently, a low dielectric constant (relative permittivity) value is preferred. A high dielectric constant value is ideal for the second application so that the capacitor dimensions can be as small as possible. With respect to AC losses (e.g., dissipation factor or power factor), materials used...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., and therefore raise the possibility of jet formation. A pure metallic contact surface issuing from the jet formation phenomenon besides great impact pressure bringing the gap between the free surface of plates to atomic distances results in metallic bonding of flyer and parent plates [ 8 ]. Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... intergranular corrosion has occurred, which greatly weakens the atomic bonding forces at the grain. The stress caused by the thermal shock that is due to welding initiates cracks at the weakened grain boundaries. Specimen Selection Six specimens were selected from four failed type 304L stainless steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... at specific locations on a build platform or part. The materials in the AM jetting processes involved controlled deposition of curable polymers or atomized melt (material jetting) or powder deposition with binder resins (binder jetting). Other AM technologies emerged with the development of selective laser...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Frequency and methods of cleaning fireside and waterside surfaces of steam generators Materials specified as to alloy requirements and dimensions Frequency and location of any previous failures Length of service of the failed component Any unusual operating history Such details can...