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atomic absorption spectroscopy

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... bars that had spent 9 months in service were dipped and rinsed in distilled water containing 1% HNO 3 in order to extract water-soluble salts from the corrosion products. Chemical analysis of the solution, using atomic absorption spectroscopy and ion-exchange chromatography, yielded Na K + , Ca 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... To further characterize the discoloration, nondiscolored and discolored regions of a typical part were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). This technique is capable of analyzing surfaces to a depth of 10–15 Å, which corresponds to 3 to 5 layers of atoms and has a detection limit on the order...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... X-rays result due to the absorption of energy by an atom. This energy can come from many sources, such as a colliding particle or the energy of an absorbed photon. While x-rays of various energies and wavelengths are emitted anytime a particle is slowed through interaction with an atom, it is only...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... as compared with the nonstained region. Some carbon and oxygen were detected in both areas, which may be suggestive of organic substances. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed traces of hydrocarbons and ether/alcohol materials in the stained area, suggesting that the stain was associated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... atomic absorption spectroscopy and a carbon sulfur analyzer. It was quite desirable to conduct X-ray diffraction work on extracted inclusions, but the limited sample size did not permit such research. The material of rings A and B was found to be stainless steel grade SS 304 ( Table 1 ). Inclusions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The discussion covers the operating principles, applications, advantages, and disadvantages of optical emission spectroscopy (OES), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), X-ray spectroscopy, and ion chromatography (IC). In addition, information on combustion analysis and inert gas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the remaining surfaces, protected by an anti-carburizing coating, stay unchanged. Based on extensive testing, including metallographic examination, microstructural analysis, microhardness testing, and spectroscopy, the oil hole was not protected as required, evidenced by the presence of a case layer...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... depth of analysis is approximately 5 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is accomplished by flooding the sample with x-rays of a known energy (typically Mg Kα at 1253.6 eV or monochromated Al Kα at 1486.7 eV). Absorption of these x-rays by the sample atoms causes photoelectrons to be emitted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... spectroscopy is a surface analysis technique used to determine the elemental composition of the top few atomic layers of a surface or exposed interface in a solid material. Auger electron spectroscopy can detect all elements except hydrogen and helium and can provide semiquantitative information with detection...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be made in several ways, including wet analytical chemistry, ultraviolet/visible absorption spectroscopy, and molecular fluorescence spectroscopy. Additionally, x-ray diffraction analysis is particularly valuable in identifying constituent compounds. Other specialized techniques may be required...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., or a plastic gear that cracked under conditions of use, or to any other failure problem. Bulk chemical analysis of ceramic and intermetallic components that have failed may be made in several ways, including wet analytical chemistry, ultraviolet/visible absorption spectroscopy, and molecular fluorescence...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... orientation, usually parallel to the surface. Laminations seldom yield differences in absorption that enable laminated areas to be distinguished from lamination-free areas. Eddy-Current Inspection Eddy-current inspection can be used on all materials that conduct electricity. If a coil conducting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... reacts to form H 2 and leaves the metal surface as gaseous hydrogen, a part of the reduced hydrogen enters into the metal as atomic hydrogen. The presence of certain chemical substances that prevent the recombination of hydrogen to form molecular hydrogen enhances the absorption of nascent (atomic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for an increase of both strength and ductility (toughness). However, the grain boundaries are also a region with many faults, dislocations, and voids. This relative atomic disarray of the grain boundaries, as compared to the more regular atomic arrangement of the grain interiors, provides an easy path...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to identify the material and to compare it with the specification requirements on the drawing. Otherwise, the alloy is identified using available standards. For metallic components, destructive analysis is performed using inductively coupled plasma/atomic or optical emission spectroscopy, an analytical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... brittle fractures. Studies of the effects of such impurities in pure iron have been greatly aided by the development of Auger electron spectroscopy. In the case of brittle grain-boundary films, it is not necessary for the film to cover the grain boundaries completely; discontinuous films are sufficient...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... misleading to an inexperienced failure analyst. Common wet chemical analysis methods for metals include atomic absorption, where a beam of light is directed through a solution of known concentration prepared by dissolving metal chips in the proper acid mixture. The light is absorbed preferentially...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... interactions of sustained static or very slowly changing loads on susceptible materials that have internal dissolved atomic hydrogen. Hydrogen stress cracking involves the absorption of hydrogen, followed by hydrogen diffusion to regions of high tensile stress, particularly those associated with notches...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in the formation and absorption of monoatomic hydrogen into the lattice. The hydrogen diffuses to sites that can best accommodate the interstitial atom, such as grain boundaries and areas under tensile stress [ 1 ]. With a susceptible material, sufficient stress, and sufficient environmental-induced hydrogen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... surface of the pipe/elbow section were dissolved in acid and analyzed by atomic absorption. The composition of the white deposit was as follows: 26.4% Al, 1.84% Hg, and 226 ppm Zn. This white residue was identified as aluminum oxide, which resulted from the reaction of an aluminum mercury solid solution...