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atom migration

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., which is sensitive to hydrogen embrittlement. As a tensile load is applied, a triaxial stress field is created in the vicinity of the defect. Hydrogen atoms, present as absorbed hydrogen in the alloy, migrate toward and into the triaxial stress zone. As a sharp crack begins to emanate from the inclusion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... being loaded. Under creep conditions, temperature-induced and stress-induced atomic migration usually cause aging to continue, resulting in reduced strength. The extent and nature of this change depends on several factors, including the condition of the alloy prior to creep and the temperature, stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... tested at 815 °C under 20.7 MPa (3000 psi) stress ( Ref 10 ). During creep, significant microstructural changes occur on all levels. As mentioned previously, on the atomic scale, dislocations are created and forced to move through the material, which leads to work hardening as dislocation density...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., unintentional plasticization by exposure to a chemical that the plastic can adsorb could accelerate failure by reducing those properties ( Ref 7 ). Plasticizer loss from an intentionally plasticized polymer may also have an adverse effect on polymer performance. Plasticizer migration from PVC is a well...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... crack origination sites. The corrosion process allowed nascent (atomic) hydrogen to migrate into the high strength component causing SCC and/or CF. The part had a larger than acceptable grain size, and unacceptable titanium-carbo-nitride precipitates were detected along the grain boundaries which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Fig. 21 Laminated structure of magnetite scale × 50 Decarburisation in the manner seen in these examples is characteristic of the effect of hydrogen, which in the atomic state is able to penetrate the lattice of the metal crystals where it reacts with carbon to form methane or other...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... energy of the metal and enhances crack propagation. This theory may explain the crack propagation of high-strength steels in low-pressure gaseous hydrogen. The decohesion theory ( Ref 2 ) holds that dissolved hydrogen tends to migrate toward regions of hydrostatic (often termed as triaxial) tensile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be particularly damaging, because many of the baths produce heavy concentrations of atomic hydrogen at the interface of the base material and plated layer. While the hydrogen atoms can diffuse readily into the iron matrix of the steel, the zinc or cadmium plating acts as a barrier to any hydrogen atoms that may...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in the top few atomic layers of a poorly performing polypropylene sample. Because the electron beam used in modern-day Auger systems is similar to those used in scanning electron microscopes, Auger systems can provide very high-spatial-resolution secondary-electron micrographs. These images are used...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: EDS, energy-dispersive spectroscopy; WDS, wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy; AES, Auger electron spectroscopy; XPS, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; TOF-SIMS, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry; FTIR, Fourier transform infrared (spectroscopy) Auger electron spectroscopy atomic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., are in play. In boiler environments, stress and temperature influence the useful life of the tube steel. The strength of the boiler tube within the creep range decreases rapidly when the tube metal temperature increases. Creep entails a time-dependent deformation involving grain sliding and atom movement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in steam. The exact nature of this barrier that forms on the metal surface is not well understood. It could be a very thin, transparent oxide film or a layer of adsorbed oxygen atoms. However, for the purposes of engineering application, it is not necessary to completely understand the mechanism...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the polymer) ( Ref 46 ). Many polymers plasticize in the presence of water and some chemical liquids because liquid molecules can easily migrate into the bulk of the polymer. Plasticization of a polymer drastically reduces its mechanical strength and hardness, which gives rise to a substantial reduction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Gerberich W. , in Gaseous Hydrogen Embrittlement of Materials in Energy Technologies , Woodhead Publishing Series in Metals and Surface Engineering , Cambridge, U.K. , 2012 , p 209 – 246 10.1533/9780857095374.2.209 64. Song J. and Curtin W.A. , Atomic Mechanism and Prediction...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... platforms, and so on. Microbial Involvement in Corrosion Corrosion involves the oxidation of metal atoms, M , in an anodic region with a loss of electrons to a complementary reduction reaction in a cathodic region elsewhere on the metal surface ( Fig. 2 ). In the reduction reaction, an electron...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by their CCT or TTT diagrams. Furthermore, dimensional changes are possible, depending on the carbon content and microstructural transformation product formed. Table 1 summarizes the atomic volumes of different microstructural components as a function of carbon content ( Ref 2 ). Table 2 provides...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is a gaseous-state process in which coating material is atomized or vaporized to deposit a coating. The success of PVD coatings in rolling-bearing technology ( Ref 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 , and 60 ) owes its existence...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a thermal gradient, gases may condense locally to form a liquid, which then may initiate a dissolution-corrosion process and migrate still further into the solid. Alternatively, gases may react chemically to form new compounds (liquid or solid). Once condensation has occurred, the basic criteria for liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1