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atmospheric contamination

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... on the HAZ, suggesting the possibility of atmospheric contamination during welding. The discoloration seemed concentrated at the interface line of the segmented backup ring. A fluorescent liquid penetrant applied to the interior weld surface revealed many small transverse cracks in the fusion zone and HAZ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... a deep, concentric groove created during a press forming operation. It was also determined that atmospheric contamination occurred during the welding of the head, causing embrittlement, which may have also contributed to the failure. Recommendations were made addressing the problems that were observed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... prevented by avoiding carbon steel contamination, by stress relieving through solution annealing, and by keeping the components dry (by limiting their exposure to humid atmosphere and to water). ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... no evidence of fatigue. A blue etch-anodize inspection showed the presence of an alpha case along the edges of the repair weld. The alpha case, a brittle oxide-enriched layer, forms when welds are inadequately shielded from the atmosphere during deposition. The brittleness of this layer caused transgranular...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... (0.120 in.). Failure occurred where the tube passed through the refractory hearth (floor) of the furnace. Although the furnace atmosphere was neutral with respect to the work, it had a carburizing potential relative to the radiant tubes. Analysis (visual inspection, 250x spectroscopic examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001559
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract One inch diam Type 304 stainless steel piping was designed to carry containment atmosphere samples to an analyzer to monitor hydrogen and oxygen levels during operational and the design basis accident conditions that are postulated to occur in a boiling water reactor. Only one...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0006898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
...-nickel, solving the SCC problem. Cupronickel Electric fuses, Materials substitution Nickel brasses 59Cu-12Ni-29Zn Stress-corrosion cracking Several fuses, made of nickel silver (57 to 61% Cu, 11 to 13% Ni, bal Zn), exposed in central offices where the air contained industrial atmospheric...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... particle (points 1 and 2, respectively) were analyzed along with a control region (point 3) off of the defects. Prior to analysis, a light sputter etch (approximately 1.5 nm removed) was performed to remove some of the atmospheric contamination to better observe the underlying stainless components. All...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... The mercury was accidentally introduced into the cylinders during a gas-blending operation through a contaminated blending manifold. Replacement of the contaminated manifold was recommended along with discontinued use of mercury manometers, the original source of mercury contamination. Brittle fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of NaCl contamination from marine atmospheres or the presence of S in the air at some industrial sites. Hot corrosion may be defined as accelerated corrosion resulting from the presence of salt contaminants, such as Na2SO 4 , NaCl, and V 2 O 5 , which combine to form molten deposits that will damage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... properties of the material, joint design, prebraze cleaning, brazing procedures, postbraze cleaning, and quality control. Factors that must be considered include brazeability of the base metals; joint design and fit-up; filler-metal selection; prebraze cleaning; brazing temperature, time, atmosphere, or flux...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... exchanger with flat microchannel tube and multilouver fin. (a) Controlled-atmosphere-brazed aluminum microchannel tube-fin heat-exchanger core. (b) Good brazed fin-tube joint. (c) Nonexistent joint. (d) Severe dissolution. (e) Poor joint. (f) Header-tube assembly cross section Fig. 3 Low-carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... by having smooth surfaces and by design of the assembly to eliminate joints. Because of acid formation from the radiolysis of moist air or reaction of surface contaminants with a damp environment, all detector assemblies are operated in an inert (He) atmosphere. They may be either in a partially...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... nonbranched cracks have been observed along with branched cracks in structural steel exposed to contaminated agricultural ammonia ( Fig. 2 ). Fig. 2 Picral-etched specimen of structural steel that was exposed to contaminated agricultural ammonia showing nonbranched stress-corrosion cracks. 75...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is open to the atmosphere. (b) Structural members should be designed to avoid retention of liquids; L-shaped sections should be used with the open side down, and exposed seams should be avoided. (c) Incorrect trimming or poor design of seals and gaskets can create crevice sites. (d) Drain valves should...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and shaker hearth furnaces should only occur with thorough purging to minimize atmosphere contamination. Hardening furnaces typically contain excessive loads prior to quenching. If the steel at quenching temperature is greater than 20% of the distance from discharge to charge door, it is too much. Either...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... mechanisms identified as stress-corrosion cracking. HIC, hydrogen-induced cracking; SOHIC, stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking; SSC, sulfide stress cracking; AGO, atmospheric gas oil; LVGO, light-vacuum gas oil; HVGO, heavy-vacuum gas oil. Adapted from Ref 6 Examples of components...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... thiocyanate/stannous chloride Pink color Sort molybdenum-bearing stainless steels Nickel Dimethylglyoxime Red precipitate Sort 300 series from 400 series stainless steel Fig. 1 SEM image of flaky metallic contaminants determined to be a mix of steel and aluminum particles by backscatter...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in water or seawater that is exposed to the atmosphere (a steel pier piling, for example). Corrosion occurs. The anodic reaction is: (Eq 14) Fe → Fe 2 + + 2 e − Because the medium is exposed to the atmosphere, it contains dissolved oxygen. Water and seawater are nearly neutral...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... was thought to be contamination occurring in the casting process that became concentrated in the recycled skimmings. It was recommended that future material specifications for skimmings and for externally obtained scrap copper include a trace analysis for tellurium. Cupronickel Embrittlement...