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artificial light sources

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... This approach is very time-consuming, especially for long-term durable materials. Natural outdoor exposures also lack the control of the stress parameters, which is required for systematic investigations. Therefore, accelerated test methods have been developed using artificial light sources such as xenon arc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of the Resistance to Artificial Weathering ,” European Committee for Standardization , 2018 27. ISO 4892-3 , “ Plastics—Methods of Exposure to Laboratory Light Sources—Part 3: Fluorescent UV Lamps ,” International Organization for Standardization , 2016 28. ASTM G154 , “ Standard Practice...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The artificial light source should have sufficient intensity to permit observation of discontinuities in the translucent material and any variations in material thickness. Lighting Conditions of Observation <xref rid="a0006764-ref9" ref-type="bibr">(Ref 9)</xref> Lighting plays a crucial role during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... for the dose rate. Three different methods for extrapolating from high dose rates to those more typically found in service are given in IEC 61244-2. The main types of artificial light sources used are carbon arc, xenon arc, and fluorescent UV (Ref 6 , 16 , 17 ). Xenon-arc lamps give a much better...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... , Photography , Pearson Education , 2008 • McHugh S. T. , Understanding Photography: Master Your Digital Camera and Capture That Perfect Photo , No Starch Press , 2019 • McKenzie J. , Overturf D. , Artificial Lighting for Photography , Delmar , Cengage Learning , 2010...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for reference. The color balance can be achieved using a white balance card, a small pocket-sized card that can be used with available or supplemental light to ensure accurate color. White balance should be calibrated for every light source, both in the field and in the laboratory. After direct lighting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006914
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...–1004 571–580 1060–1076 Wool 200 392 … … Wood 220–264 428–507 260–416 500–781 Cotton 230–266 446–511 254 489 Source: Ref 5 Limiting oxygen index (LOI) values for unfilled polymers Table 2 Limiting oxygen index (LOI) values for unfilled polymers Polymer...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ORTHOPEDIC IMPLANTS are unique in that they are exposed to the biochemical and dynamic environment of the body and their design is dictated by anatomy and restricted by physiological conditions. Orthopedic implants are artificial devices (allentheses) that are mounted to the skeletal system of the human body...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...  Second coat Hempadur 3553 (light gray), DFT 200 μm  Top coat Hempadur 3553 (off white), DFT 200 μm Fig. 1 (a) Topside of the bottom plate sample, cut from a location near the annular plate, in the as-received condition showing pit and holes. 1×. (b) Underside of the same bottom plate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in Fig. 9 , light etching and higher magnification revealed that the cracks were intergranular. Although in macroexaminations secondary cracking appeared to be confined to the hole surfaces at the left attachment lug, a cross section of the lower right fracture also showed a condition of branched...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... preparation scanning electron microscope scanning electron microscopy THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microscopic features of most solid materials. Compared to the light microscope, it expands the resolution range by more than 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for a particular device to demonstrate equivalence to a previously cleared predicate device, which can be a source of information during a failure investigation. The FDA (and other similar regulatory bodies) also has strict requirements regarding the device design, verification/validation, and quality...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Radiography uses x-rays or gamma rays, which are directed through the sample to a photographic film. After the film has been developed, it can be examined by placing it in front of a light source. The intensity of the light passing through the film will be proportional to the density of the sample...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to 82 °C (140 to 180 °F). The pilot light is always on and the gas valve operates the main burner in full-on/full-off modes. The controller is operated by the temperature measuring and comparing device. The check valve in the water inlet pipe prevents reverse flow due to overpressure in the hot water...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... design process, even during the early stages of design. Fig. 1 Interrelated factors involved in the design process. Source: Ref 1 Materials selection and design are also closely related to the objectives of failure analysis and prevention. These processes are inextricably intertwined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of the entire design process, even during the early stages of design. Fig. 1 Interrelated factors involved in the design process. Source: Ref 1 Materials selection and design are also closely related to the objectives of failure analysis and prevention. These processes are inextricably...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006912
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... always specify the type of light source placed at a specific angle relative to the part surface and a viewing angle. Standards such as these eliminate variables associated with arbitrary viewing angles and conditions. Specification of screw type and torque level is a critical parameter...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...Property comparison of electron sources Table 1 Property comparison of electron sources Property Thermionic tungsten filament Thermionic LaB 6 /CeB 6 Schottky field emission ZrO/W (100) Cold field-emission tungsten (310) Brightness (β), A/cm 2 · sr 10 6 10 7 5 × 10 8 10...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and Si 3 N 4 good … Source: Ref 2 Bond energies for various materials Table 2 Bond energies for various materials Bond type Material Bond energy kJ/mol kcal/mol Ionic NaCl 640 153 MgO 1000 239 Covalent Si 450 108 C (diamond) 713 170 Metallic Hg 68...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... or transportation Improved overprintability, heat-sealing stability, and low porosity Stain-preventing and antiscratch additives, especially bio-based additives with high oxidative stability Source: Ref 40 , 45 , 67 Key phthalate and nonphthalate types of plasticizers Table 2 Key phthalate...