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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to identify localized areas that have low signal for those elements. Additional spectra are then obtained in these low-intensity areas to identify additional elements that may be present. Line scans are similar to maps except that the data are obtained in one direction only. Fig. 4 Auger electron...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) contamination. After first obtaining survey spectra from the area of interest, Auger maps are obtained for the elements of interest. The maps are then studied to identify localized areas that have low signal for those elements. Additional spectra can then be obtained in these low-intensity areas to determine...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... records, and pertinent purchase specifications. Additional information on upfront planning of investigations is also described in the article “Organization of a Failure Investigation” in this Volume. Collecting Data and Samples On-Site Investigation In the investigation of failures, it is also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
..., fractography, and microhardness testing were used to gain an understanding of the failure mechanism. Wire failures occurred predominantly at characteristic wear sites between strands. These wear sites are identifiable by a large reduction in diameter; however, reduction in area was not responsible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., metallic particles, and others that are added to plastic resins. Fillers are discussed in more detail in the article “ Fundamentals of Polymer Additives ” in this Volume. Two additional signals generated by electron beams that are valuable in the analysis of materials are Auger electrons...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the loading pattern and other factors responsible for a service failure are described elsewhere in this Volume. However, for effective measures to be taken in preventing future similar failures, it is essential to identify the root cause of the problem, as distinct from the immediate cause of the physical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... provide a metric of the capability of the inspection and identify areas of possible improvement if the outcome of the assessment does not meet the requirements of the inspection. In addition, a POD assessment can be configured to provide insight on how one instrument compares to another when all other...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... article in this Volume, “Fracture Appearance and Mechanisms of Deformation and Fracture.” In a smooth cylindrical tensile specimen, failure most commonly initiates by inclusion-matrix interface debonding near the centerline. This results in a central fibrous region that is normal to the applied load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and Mechanisms of Deformation and Fracture” in this Volume. However, Courtney ( Ref 20 ) reported brittle behavior in iridium and rhodium. Additionally, nitrogenated austenitic stainless steels and austenitic stainless steels in stress-corrosion cracking conditions can possibly cleave. Stresses to cause cleavage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., lubricants, stabilizers, pigments, and their carrier systems, that can be affected by microbiologic attack. Additives that are not distributed evenly will provide areas of preferential growth for fungi or bacteria. However, surfaces oxidized by weathering can support microbial growth. The most favorable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of fracture surface features at both the micro- and macroscales. It is important that examination of the fracture surface and adjacent component surface be done starting at low magnification with sequential examination of features of interest at increasing magnification. It is only in this way...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... nation. The effect of abrasion is particularly evident in the industrial areas of agriculture, mining, mineral processing, and earth moving. Likewise, wear is a critical concern in many types of machine components; in fact, it is often a major factor in defining or limiting the suitable lifetime...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... number of chain ends per unit volume for short-chain species. Chain ends reduce packing efficiency, affecting crystallinity, and the additional free volume available offers sites into which the polymer can be displaced under stress. Once the MW is greater than the M c , the end-group concentration...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of this Volume, while this article introduces the section on fracture. However, it should be remembered that some nonfracture-failure scenarios may ultimately lead to fracture. Wear processes, for example, can ultimately lead to fracture by galling and/or fretting fatigue. Other examples include fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... occurred at welds and consisted of large subsurface void formations with pinhole penetrations of the surfaces. Corrosive attack initiated in the heat affected zones of the welds, usually immediately adjacent to fusion lines. Stepwise grinding, polishing, and etching through the affected areas revealed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (FRP) In-depth studies on continuous steel fiber reinforced, epoxy polymer (EP), and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) ( Ref 2 ) focused on various aspects such as area fraction, volume fraction, mean free path between the fibers (λ), and the ratio λ/ D , where D was the size of abrasives. Based...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and the detector to the measurement location is required, and the incident x-ray beam must irradiate the volume of interest ( Ref 8 ). The precision and accuracy of results obtained is generally a function of the instrument used, the material condition, the measurement technique used, and subsequent data analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... exhibit extremely high reduction in area, or necking, at the fracture site. Impurities and second-phase particles are always present in most engineering materials. An increased volume fraction of these constituents reduces the true fracture strain and the reduction in area ( Ref 1 ). The type...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at the water jacket vent plug. Both 0.5× Fig. 2 Additional views of the failed cylinder head shown in Fig. 1 . (a) Fracture surface observed when the crack shown in Fig. 1 was opened. 0.5×. (b) Specimen taken from area adjacent to the vent plug showing microporosity. Etched with 2% nital. 100×. (c...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9