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aqueous electrolyte concentration

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... mainly across the grains. After electrolytic grain boundary etching in aqueous nitric acid, Fig. 3 , this can be seen particularly clearly. Twin boundaries also fail to deflect the cracks from their original direction, which is determined solely by the stress ( Fig. 3 ). Fig. 2 Cross-section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... sensitization and susceptibility to aqueous intergranular corrosion. Chemical analysis showed the predominant acid radical to be sulfate (6.20% in the carbonaceous deposit and 0.60% in the corrosion product), suggesting that oxidation of SO2 in the flue gas caused the corrosion. Moisture condensation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to their relative potentials for a given electrolytic solution. For example, the galvanic series of potentials for metals in a chloride-containing aqueous solution (i.e., seawater) is often used for purposes of general comparison. This series is shown in Fig. 3 . When two metals of a galvanic cell are widely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., it is useful to rank metals according to their relative potentials for a given electrolytic solution. For example, the galvanic series of potentials for metals in a chloride-containing aqueous solution (i.e., seawater) is often used for purposes of general comparison. This series is shown in Fig. 3 . When two...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... visible. The fact that they are attacked by electrolytic etching in ammonia water ( Fig. 10 ) proves that carbides of high chromium content or chromium carbides are present. The regions near the grain-boundaries which are depleted in chromium as a result of this carbide precipitation can be attacked...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... explains the SCC, which occurs due to welding, metalworking process, and stress concentration, including options for investigation and corrective measures. It describes the sources of stresses in service and the effect of composition and metal structure on the susceptibility of SCC. The article provides...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
.... and Wagner C. , “Electrolytic Dissolution of Binary Alloys Containing a Nobel Metal,” J. Electrochem. , Vol. 114 , pp. 698 – 706 ( July 1967 ). 10.1149/1.2426709 6. Kato C. et al. , “On the Mechanism of Corrosion of Cu-9.4 Ni-1.7Fe in Air Saturated Aqueous NaCl Solution,” J...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with lubricant 27 6 120–150 Comp 2 Billiard or felt cloths 1 μm diamond paste with lubricant 27 6 120–150 Comp 2 Synthetic suede pad Aqueous 0.3 μm α-alumina slurry 27 6 120–150 Comp 2 Synthetic suede pad Aqueous 0.05 μm γ-alumina slurry 27 6 120–150 Comp 2 (a) PSA, pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ( Fig. 7 ). Fig. 7 (a) Intergranular crack in Monel. (b) Transgranular crack in aluminum Fatigue cracks propagate in components subject to cyclic loading, iniating at a stress concentrator. The crack grows progressively, sometimes extending with each loading cycle. The surface is generally...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...; hydrogen gas is evolved and the zinc dissolves, forming an acidic aqueous solution of zinc chloride. The reaction is: (Eq 1) Zn + 2 HCl → ZnCl 2 + H 2 Since the chloride ion is not involved in the reaction, this equation can be written in the simplified form: (Eq 2) Zn...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... it occurs in aqueous solution according to an electrochemical process described by F. K. Naumann and W. Carius 1 and forms iron sulfide and hydrogen. The hydrogen penetrates the steel and precipitates molecularly at weak points such as inclusions, grain- and phase boundaries at a pressure corresponding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... reaction occurs in which hydrogen gas is evolved and the zinc dissolves, forming an acidic aqueous solution of zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 ): (Eq 1) Zn + 2 HCl → Zn Cl 2 + H 2 Because the chloride ion is not involved in the reaction, this equation can be written in a simplified form...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... basins were caught with fuel in the basins with no other place to go. P-reactor and L-reactor were permanently shut down and all efforts were concentrated on getting K-reactor back into operation. Water quality in the storage basins was maintained, but deionizer availability was limited and conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cracking Alloy Environment Carbon steel Hot nitrate, hydroxide, and carbonate/bicarbonate solutions High-strength steels Aqueous electrolytes, particularly when containing H 2 S Austenitic stainless steels Hot, concentrated chloride solutions; chloride-contaminated steam; hot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... be alleviated. Even when using resistant material, the piping should be kept relatively clean with non-stagnant conditions. Bacteria in an aqueous environment will naturally form a biofilm on most surfaces. When the biofilm is formed, organic decomposition can occur. The by-products of organic decomposition...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Concentration Cells In many industrial water systems, colonization of metal surfaces by sessile microorganisms creates a new environment on the surface that may favor corrosion. During the colonization process, microbes from the aqueous phase quickly adhere to exposed steel surfaces and proceed to generate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
....2008.04.076 15. Trzaskoma P.P. , Corrosion Behavior of a Graphite Fiber/Magnesium Metal Matrix Composite in Aqueous Chloride Solution , Corrosion , Vol 42 , 1986 , p 609 − 613 10.5006/1.3583031 16. McCauley R.A. , Corrosion of Ceramic and Composite Materials , 2nd ed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Soil water saturation, % 5–36 +0.626 Oxidation-reduction potential, mV (CSE) (b) −316 to +384 −0.545 Sulfate concentration in groundwater, mg/g wet weight soil 0.3–200 +0.455 Clay content of soil … +0.407 (a) Viable cell count based on most probable number method. (b) CSE...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... for 2–4 minutes was found to work best. To reveal the carbides, M 23 C 6 , electrolytic concentrated NH 4 OH was first used. However, results were marginal for image analysis and standard Murakami's reagent (10g NaOH, 10g K 3 Fe(CN) 6 , 100 mL water) at room temperature for 60–90 s was found to be more...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of otherwise protective films and the continual release of heavy metal ions into the body fluids, with possible toxic reactions. This aspect of fretting in aqueous electrolytes is discussed in detail subsequently. Fatigue failure is also possible ( Fig. 7 ). Fig. 7 Fracture in an orthopedic bone plate...