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applications of refractory metals

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... those chemical and physical properties that make them applicable for structures, or as components of systems, that are exposed to environments above 538 °C (1000 °F).” Nowadays, refractories are made of not only oxides and nonoxide compounds (carbides, nitrides, and carbons), but also of metallic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... ( Fig. 3 ), which appeared to be corrosion film or possibly excess brazing flux that had not been properly removed during the washing operation. Fig. 3 Schematic showing the silver-refractory metal contacts Testing Procedure and Results Chemical Analysis/Identification Coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... graphite under transfer of metal particles into the “coke” layer Further graphite deposition from the gas phase on these catalytically active metal particles (iron, nickel). Chemical reactions producing such high carbon activities, for example, in reformer applications, are: (Eq 1) Hydrogen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... refractory cement was used in installation, and burner positioning and regulation were controlled more closely to avoid excessive heat input at the hearth level. The replacement tubes had a life well in excess of two years, which was normal for RA 333 alloy tubes in this application. Selected Reference...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...% of the total number of thermowells were leading at the tips. Fig. 1 Schematic of thermowell Applications The thermowells are used for the insertion of thermocouples at 306 inlet and 306 exit points of heavy-water coolant that enters the core in a nuclear power plant. Using the criterion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... had a type 304 stainless steel shroud around the catalyst bed as protection against the overheating that was possible if the gas bypassed the bed through the refractory material. The failure was observed to have begun at the toe of the shroud-support ring weld. The ring was found to have a number...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The metals (titanium, copper, etc.) and their alloys are not included due to their very specific areas of applications. In general, polymers have very low resistance against erosive wear and can be mainly used at lowest velocities ( Ref 87 ). Elastomers usually have low erosion rates at low velocities...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... 3 Showing crack which penetrated drum. (Both photographs taken after application of magnetic particle test). Figure 4 , is an internal view of the crack which penetrated the drum. Fig. 4 Appearance of crack on inside surface of drum. Figure 5 , is an illustration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... metals to ceramics. Procedures for brazing various materials such as cast irons, steels, stainless steels, heat-resistant alloys, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, copper alloys, reactive and refractory metals, and carbon and graphite are described in Welding, Brazing, and Soldering , Volume 6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... slag removal and from reoxidation of the molten metal during subsequent transferring to holding furnaces and even during pouring. Gray iron requires the addition of an inoculant for most applications. The purpose of this inoculation is to introduce the proper conditions to nucleate the desired...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of hydrogen in certain metals and alloys is the reaction of water vapor with the liquid metal at high temperatures. The water vapor may originate from the charge materials, slag ingredients and alloy additions, refractory linings, ingot molds, or even the atmosphere itself if steps are not taken to prevent...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... , CPI Drive Refractory Advances , Chem. Eng. , Vol 105 , Oct 1998 , p 110 – 120 42. Tilly G.P. , Sand Erosion of Metals and Plastics: A Brief Review , Wear , Vol 14 , 1969 , p 241 – 248 43. Bruce R.W. , Development of 1232 °C (2250 °F) Erosion and Impact Tests...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A failure analysis was conducted in late 1996 on two rolls that had been used in the production of iron and steel powder. The rolls had elongated over their length such that the roll trunnions had impacted with the furnace wall refractory. The result was distortion and bowing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... that metallic implants shall be free of surface imperfections and that applicable specific finish requirements such as texture and surface roughness should be included in the respective implant specification. The usual types of surface finish available in stainless steel bar and wire products, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Nickel- and cobalt-base heat-resisting alloys 650 1200 0.56 T M Refractory metals and alloys 980–1540 1800–2800 0.4–0.45 T M Typical elevated temperatures in engineering applications Table 2 Typical elevated temperatures in engineering applications Application Typical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... reduction was obtained in two ways: one was the improving of weldability of steels having Cr levels above 1%, thus replacing steels susceptible to graphitization in equipment exposed to temperature above which graphitization occurs. The other was the development of refractory compatible with the application...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... inside the vessel conducting the hot gas flow to a water quench. An investigation was performed to identify possible scenarios for the cause of the incident. Gasifier Design and Operation The refinery power plant had two gasifiers, shown in Fig. 1 , each with two stages; an upper, refractory...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... attack on fracture surface 4 41–42 Coated (b) Bolt completely failed in test fixture Not applicable Heavy corrosion on fracture surface (a) After 3 months of intermittent dipping in a 3.5% NaCl solution. (b) Coated with an antiseizure compound consisting of metallic copper flakes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... focuses on the types of hydrogen embrittlement that occur in all the major commercial metal and alloy systems, including stainless steels, nickel-base alloys, aluminum and aluminum alloys, titanium and titanium alloys, copper and copper alloys, and transition and refractory metals. The specific types...