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anodic pitting

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0047606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... and with a SEM in the laboratory. The examinations revealed a combination of failure mechanisms. The pitting failure of the welds was attributed to localized attack of an activated surface, in which anodic pits corroded rapidly. Additionally, SCC driven by residual welding stresses occurred in the base metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... is typical of pipe, neither very rough nor smooth. The relative surface area of the cathode to anode is large because of the expanse of the pipe involved. Corrosion by pitting starts, the dense acid puddles by gravity over a relatively wide area, and the remainder of the pipe section acts as a cathode...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... before anodizing, because chromic acid destroys the penetrant. This inspection would reduce the possibility of cracked parts being used in service. Anodizing Cracking (fracturing) Forgings Straightening 2014-T6 UNS A92014 (Other, general, or unspecified) fracture Pitting corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...) supported the conclusion that the cause of failure was SCC resulting from exposure to a marine environment. The fracture occurred in normal operation at a point where damage from pitting and intergranular corrosion acted as a stress raiser, not because of overload. The pitting and intergranular attack...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion, intergranular corrosion, and velocity-affected corrosion. The article contains a table that lists combinations of alloys and environments subjected to selective leaching and the elements removed by leaching. corrosion crevice corrosion dealuminification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... such as copper, mercury, or lead. Some aluminum alloys are used for sacrificial anodes in seawater. An active, anodic alloy is used to clad aluminum, protecting it against pitting in some applications. Contact of aluminum with more cathodic metals should be avoided in any environment in which aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...), inhibition, and cathodic or anodic protection. The service life of the affected component can normally be estimated with a reasonable degree of accuracy, and catastrophic failures can be avoided. Localized corrosion, such as crevice and pitting corrosion, intergranular corrosion, selective leaching...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... that the most fool-proof method of preventing such failures without sacrificing any notched yield strength is to age the bolts for one more hour at 1,000 F. Anodized aluminum in the flange interface will minimize corrosion — it will also inhibit galvanic corrosion only if the bolts are inserted carefully...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... galvanic series and in the presence of an aggressive environment (H 2 S, CO 2 , high salinity, temperature, and pressure). The severity can be increased when the unfavorable area ratio is applicable where the anodic is smaller than that of the cathodic area [ 4 , 5 ]. Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... rather than in a uniform manner, suggesting that pitting could occur as a result of cylinder vibration only and may not necessarily be a consequence of cavitation in the water. Once pits develop, one would expect them to develop at a fairly rapid rate, due to the combination of a small anode and a large...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., the corrosion reaction at a sulfide or chloride ion-induced anodic site under a deposit was supported by a cathodic reaction at the edges of the deposits, followed by the initiation of pits. Once the pits were established, the anodic reaction with the confines of each pit produced increased acidity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of pits. The coating surrounding the anode and the activating property of corrosion products within the pits accounted for the tendency of corrosion to penetrate the metal rather than spread along the surface; this finally led to the formation of pits of varying depths. The presence of a significant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... is provided by the work done in the late 1950's. 4 For aluminum-clad fuel, once the clad has been penetrated by pitting corrosion, the compounds formed by the nickel bonding layer may become slightly anodic to the aluminum and result in undercutting of the cladding by galvanic corrosion when exposed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... electrolyte. Where anodes and cathodes frequently change location, general corrosion is seen, but when the anode becomes focused in one location, pitting results. In pitting, the rate of penetration is, to a large measure, a function of the relative size of the cathodic and anodic areas involved...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... oxidized and pitted. The breech chambers are constructed from AISI 4340 steel heat treated to a specified hardness value of Rockwell C 40–45. Metallurgical failure analyses on several failed breech chambers conducted at the University of Oklahoma, have identified stress corrosion cracking as a probable...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... could exceed the yield strength. Since the tensile strength level and hardness for both steels are almost equals ( Tables 3 , 5 ) therefore the improved SSCC resistance of the A217-WC9 steel can be attributed to its higher pitting resistance. Comparison of the anodic polarization curves ( Fig. 9...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of poor operations or improper materials selection, and thus often preventable. heat exchangers drain lines corrosion bacterial growth copper stainless steel pitting perforations microscopy corrosion resistance 304L stainless steel (austenitic wrought stainless steel) UNS S30403 316L...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... and roller) were revealed to be uniformly electrolytically etched by visual examination. The action similar to anodic etching was believed to have occurred as a result of stray currents in the electric motor (not properly grounded) and the presence of an electrolyte (moisture) between the cup and roller...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001691
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of anodic reaction because it is an autocatalytic process. The corrosion processes within a pit produce conditions that are both stimulating and necessary for the continuing activity of the pit. This process is self-propagating. Most pitting is associated with halide ions. Oxidizing metal ions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to the condensate formation on the bottom of the pipe leading to the observed corrosion trail along the bottom. Finally, the broad and shallow pitting evident on the inner surface of the pipe is not typical of environments in which CSCC usually occur. The anodic dissolution processes that led to the grain boundary...