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anisotropy

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... microscopy, and mechanical-property analysis) supported the conclusions that the alloy steel plate used in this application contained significant brittle microstructural fibering or banding. This condition produced considerable anisotropy in ductility and toughness as revealed by mechanical testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... toughness, notch toughness, and transverse tensile properties, and do so in an anisotropic manner with respect to rolling direction. Significant property anisotropy has been documented in the failures investigated, providing evidence that designers failed to account for it. Typical fracture morphologies...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., when converted to a tensile strength of 2358 MPa (342 ksi), meets the tensile requirements for spring-quality music wire in the 0.76 mm (0.030 in.) diameter (2275 MPa, or 330 ksi, minimum) per ASTM A228 ( Fig. 9 ). These results showed considerable plastic anisotropy in this material, which would...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... . This microstructural anisotropy is reflected in the notch toughness values; the higher impact energies are associated with specimens with the notch transverse to the rolling direction, as described in Table 4 . The failure can be divided in two phases: in the first one (on region A), a crack appeared some time...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
..., exhibiting substantially poorer long and short transverse mechanical properties than the longitudinal properties, which were likely used for design. It is likely that the materials selection process did not properly account for this anisotropy. The selection of a rolled product may also be questionable here...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0048804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
...-strength variations up to 20% within a shell (excluding anisotropy effects) For any specific failure, an immediate cause may be determinable, either in the material or in the recent service history. However, the analyst should be wary of the long histories of these vessels. Owners and operators...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-2818.2001.00922.x 47. Exner H.E. and Fripan M. , Quantitative Assessment of Three-Dimensional Roughness, Anisotropy, and Angular Distributions of Fracture Surfaces by Stereometry, Part 2 , J. Microsc. , Vol 139 , 1985 , p 161 – 178 10.1111/j.1365-2818.1985.tb02610.x 48. Dighe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0089254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... heavily involved in the material specification or may not have realized the sensitivity of this particular design to material anisotropy. The material itself was not defective or bad, and the part design was reasonable too, except for the material selection, which turned out to be the critical factor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in bending and the relatively large anisotropy of NiTi tensile and compressive behavior. An example of the tension-compression anisotropy is shown in Fig. 14 . The stress-induced austenite to martensite transformation occurs at significantly higher stresses and lower strains in compression compared...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the anisotropy of the material so that the resistance to stress corrosion would be similar in all directions. Extruded material of this composition is known to be very anisotropic with respect to stress-corrosion resistance, being best in the longitudinal direction and worst in the short transverse direction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to below T g . By using a model for rubber elasticity and the theory of the kinetic origin of rubber elasticity, one researcher ( Ref 4 ) has shown that molecular orientation is accompanied by residual entropy stresses. Orientation and entropy stresses affect anisotropy effects. For example, the linear...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article provides a discussion on the imperfections found in steel forgings. The problems encountered in sheet metal forming are also discussed. The article concludes with information on the causes of failure in cold formed parts. anisotropy blisters centerline shrinkage chemical segregation cold...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...). During working, drill bits are subject to impact, twisting, tension, and compression high stress which can cause fatigue crack. Crack initiation and propagation can occur at local strain concentrators such as pores, inclusions, machined surface, or the elastic anisotropy of grains and/or second phases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of measurement. The anisotropy is due to fibers and/or polymer molecules which may become preferentially aligned and oriented during the manufacturing process. The reference direction of the plastic is often chosen with respect to the processing method, and this direction is referred to as the machine direction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the sulfur content below 0.020%, since sulfide inclusions aligned on the rolling direction are sources of mechanical anisotropy and reduce resistance to corrosion [ 8 , 9 ]. The high nitrogen content and the low nickel content do not seem to be harmful to the material used in this application...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Orientation-specific depending on anisotropy of the microstructure Izod impact Higher strain rate than tensile test Quick and easy to perform Good for comparison of material vs. temperature or potential microstructure variation Smaller sample size than a tensile test Provides exemplar fracture surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006937
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... materials, plastic or otherwise, are naturally birefringent because of their crystalline structure. Others, such as amorphous plastics, are not birefringent unless strained (that is, deformed as a result of stress). The use of strain-induced birefringence (anisotropy) to study stress is called...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1