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amorphous polymers

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... no apparent effect. Amorphous polymers absorb chemicals more readily than crystalline polymers, and the rate varies inversely with the degree of crystallinity. Cross-linked polymers will not dissolve but will swell significantly when exposed to chemicals having similar solubility-parameter values...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that propagate ideally along shear planes. Like crazes, shear-deformation bands, or slip lines, are traditionally thought to be the mechanism of irreversible tensile deformation in ductile amorphous polymers. Almost invariably, a compressive-stress state will cause shear deformation in polymers. Under monotonic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... polymer-based contamination. The consistency of a concentrated film or layer of amorphous polymer film at the metallization interface suggested that the epoxy binder in the thick-film ink was neither homogeneous nor stable. Resin separation from the epoxy binder created an oily, nonadherent film...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of Nonmetals The root-cause failure analysis of polymers is becoming more common. A significant portion of polymer failures are environmentally influenced. Environmental factors can have significant detrimental effects on polymer components with respect to strength and appearance. Environmental effects...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Practical information derived from polymer analysis methods Table 1 Practical information derived from polymer analysis methods Test method Properties measured Use in failure analysis Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) Molecular bond structure Material identification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Basic characteristics of engineering polymers Table 1 Basic characteristics of engineering polymers Location (a) Characteristics Examples (b) 1 Flexible and crystallizable chains PEPPPVCPA 2 Cross-linked amorphous networks of flexible chains Phenol-formaldehyde cured...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... materials. The main intrinsic properties that characterize all polymer molecules are their size, weight, and weight distribution; chain stiffness or chain rigidity; the particular state, whether amorphous, semicrystalline, or crystalline; and the nature of any network structure. These elements, by means...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the mechanical properties of the component. For amorphous polymers, properties are dependent on chain flexibility and cross linking. Nevertheless, creep damage in polymers is realized through the formation of microscopic cracking and crazing and, potentially on a macroscopic scale, whitening. Surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Additionally, amorphous resins, such as polysulfone, may develop cracks over time due to aging in conjunction with stresses. 2 This aging, commonly referred to as physical aging, occurs over an extended period of time, at temperatures below the glass transition, as the polymer undergoes molecular motion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0092103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... to postcrystallization. The porosity is attributed to the difference in densities between the amorphous (1.05 g/cm 3 , or 0.04 lb/in. 3 ) and the semicrystalline (1.45 g/cm 3 , or 0.05 lb/in. 3 ) states ( Ref 1 ). Breakdown along the crystalline superstructure started mainly at the mechanically stressed tooth flanks...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... appearance and mechanism facilitate potential scaling to fabricated engineering components. Several compilations of fractographic information (albeit dated in some instances) are also available for metals, polymers, ceramics, and composites. Examples include Ref 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Schematic picture of spaghetti-bowl appearance of an unoriented amorphous polymer. (a) Prior to plastic strain. (b) After plastic strain; twisting and kinking are reduced and the polymer chains become oriented in the direction of plastic strain. Source: Ref 12 Qualitatively, strength and modulus...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the liner and the pipe. Teflon is a semicrystalline polymer (polytetrafluoroethylene, or PTFE). Permeation of polar molecular species such as HNO 3 can occur in PTFE, especially in regions that exhibit amorphous characteristics. The presence of nitrate in the interannular space suggests...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by fretting an alumina cylinder against an alumina flat Fig. 24 Oxide debris produced when fretting steel against a polymer Fig. 31 Changes in surface roughness as a function of the number of fretting cycles for metal-to-metal contact. (a) As received. (b) 10 3 cycle. (c) 5 × 10 4 cycles...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract Plastics or polymers are used in a variety of engineering and nonengineering applications where they are subjected to surface damage and wear. This article discusses the classification of polymer wear mechanisms based on the methodologies of defining the types of wear...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article reviews the abrasive and adhesive wear failure of several types of reinforced polymers, including particulate-reinforced polymers, short-fiber reinforced polymers (SFRP), continuous unidirectional fiber reinforced polymers (FRP), particulate-filled composites...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... This article discusses the generic features of impact wear on metals, ceramics, and polymers. It describes normal impact wear and compound impact wear, as well as the features of impact wear testing apparatus such as ballistic impact wear apparatus and pivotal hammer impact wear apparatus. Most mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... situations, the bodies tend to be large and contact in a well-defined location in a controlled way, unlike erosion where the eroding particles are small and interact randomly with the target surface. This article describes some generic features and modes of impact wear of metals, ceramics, and polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.../0043-1648(81)90241-6 99. Higham P.A. , Stott F.H. , and Bethune B. , The Influence of Polymer Composition on the Wear of the Metal Surface during the Fretting of Steel on Polymer , Wear , Vol 47 , 1978 , p 71 – 80 10.1016/0043-1648(78)90204-1 100. Jacobs O...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and pointing back to the origin of the crack. However, the amorphous structure of the glass does not produce the flat cleavage surfaces apparent in the steel. Instead, extremely large, smoothly scalloped regions exist. These are often found in brittle fractures of glasses and polymers. The brittle failure...