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aluminum production

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Leaks developed at random locations in aluminum brass condenser tubes within the first year of operation of a steam condenser in a nuclear power plant. One failed tube underwent scanning electron microscopy surface examination and optical microscope metallography. It was determined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... The reaction is highly exothermic and can be self sustaining if there is sufficient heat of reaction to melt the aluminum (approximately 650 °C, or 1200 °F). In addition to heat and light, the typical reaction products are aluminum fluorides, other metal halides, carbon and free acids. In a system...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... storage for up to 8 years. 1 The spent nuclear fuel is primarily irradiated uranium-aluminum alloy or depleted uranium metal fuel clad with a 30-mil type 1100 or 8001 aluminum alloy. After about two years of storage, visible corrosion product was evident on the depleted uranium metal Mk-31A target...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A segment from a premium-quality H13 tool steel die for die casting of aluminum failed after only 700 shots. The segment was subjected to visual, macroscopic, hardness, and metallographic testing. The investigation revealed that failure occurred as a result of fatigue at an electrical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Several wires in aluminum conductor cables fractured within 5 to 8 years of, service in Alaskan tundra. The cables were comprised of 19-wire strands; the wires were aluminum alloy 6201-T81. Visual and metallographic examinations of the cold-upset pressure weld joints in the wires...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... removed from the production equipment. Replacement of the mercury-contaminated aluminum equipment thus became a high priority The presence of mercury contamination can produce very porous welds. Repair welding of the pipe segments that were removed required special techniques by experienced welders...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... most critical consideration in electrical applications is the damage to aluminum that can occur when it is in contact with copper or copper alloys, Electrical joint compounds are available to inhibit corrosion in applications involving aluminum wire. Commercially available products consist of a grease...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... NR 0.0057 Aluminum NR 0.0239 Vanadium NR 0.0012 Titanium NR 0.0032 (a) NR, no requirement ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... necessarily involved oxyacetylene flame cutting and arc welding operations, both of which give rise to molten metal droplets. It is fairly clear then that the 1977 deposit is oxidized debris from the 1974 reheater modification. Particles rich in silicon and aluminum would correspond to welding slag. Some of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A helicopter tail rotor blade spar failed in fatigue, allowing the outer section of the blade to separate in flight. The 7075-T7351 aluminum alloy blade had fiberglass pockets. The blade spar was a hollow “D” shape, and corrosion pits were present on the inner surface of the hollow...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A helicopter tail rotor blade spar failed in fatigue, allowing the blade to separate during flight. The 2014-T652 aluminum alloy blade had a hollow spar shank filled with lead wool ballast and a thermoset polymeric seal. A corrosion pit was present at the origin of the fatigue zone and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... aluminum and uranium. Scratches and imperfections in protective oxide coating on the cladding Low flow/stagnant water. The increased storage time for the aluminum-clad fuel caused by a suspension of processing resulted in visible, nodular corrosion product on the surfaces of the fuel. Much of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract A failure analysis investigation was conducted on a fractured aluminum tailwheel fork which failed moments after the landing of a privately owned, 1955 twin-engine airplane. Nondestructive evaluation via dye-penetrant inspection revealed no discernible surface cracks. The chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... silicon. This phase varied in terms of the relative niobium content. Niobium is also an effective carbide stabilizer. Grain boundary oxidation products were identified through EDS as consisting mostly of chromium with smaller levels of aluminum, silicon, titanium, manganese, iron, and nickel. ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... coolers): 90Cu-10Ni, 70Cu-30 Ni, arsenical copper, Alloy 194, and aluminum bronze. As a result, the use of 90Cu-10Ni (B111-Alloy C70600) is recommended for the replacement tubes. In addition to switching to a more corrosion-resistant alloy, extreme care should be taken in the manufacturing of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in aluminum alloys. Significant microhardness testing of fractured and intact pin sections indicated that no such hard plane existed at the common fracture location. The common fracture location was actually not significantly deformed, being a shallow corner, and more highly deformed areas were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... corrosion-resistant alloys of steel, copper, and aluminum. Lee et al. ( Ref 8 ) discussed a broader range of metals and alloys, with a focus on the mineralogy of corrosion products. A number of recent publications describe schemes and make recommendations for the management of MIC ( Ref 89...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Welded steel storage vessels used to hold mildly alkaline solution were produced in exactly the same manner from deep-drawn aluminum-killed SAE 1006 low-carbon steel sheet. After the cylindrical shell was drawn, a top low-carbon steel closure was welded to the inside diameter. The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract An aluminum bronze bushing that serves as a guide in a crimping machine began to fail after 50,000 cycles or approximately two weeks of operation. Until then, typical run times had been on the order of months. Although the bushings are replaceable and relatively inexpensive, the cost...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract An aluminum bronze propeller tap bolt from a twin-screw vessel fractured just below the bolt head. Liquid penetrant testing revealed a large network of cracks that extended radially from sites in and just below the bolthead. Metallographic analysis indicated that the tap bolt failed by...