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aluminum oxide

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
.... Because the die cast brass was alloyed with aluminum, these inclusions consisted predominantly of aluminum oxide. The tolerable limit in pores and oxide inclusions was greatly exceeded in the lift disk under examination. Above all, the numerous oxide skins disrupted the cohesion of the microstructure...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 12 Uniform oxide formation on the water-channel side of the 6063 aluminum component. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... of improved design were attributed to fatigue cracks initiating at the aluminum oxide inclusions in the flange fillet. Recommendations included retaining the improved design of the flange with the weld approximately 50 mm (2 in.) from the fillet, but changing the metal to a forging of AISI 4140 steel, oil...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047856
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... and fatigue beach marks around two of the inclusions were revealed by macroscopic examination of the fracture surface. Large nonmetallic inclusions that consisted of heavy concentrations of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) were revealed by microscopic examination of a section through the fracture origin. The forging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... primarily of aluminum oxide or silicates rich in aluminum oxide. Inclusions of this type could not be found in the interior of the cross section; only oxide and sulfide inclusions of normal size were found in the interior. Conclusions The inclusions consisted of pieces of fireclay from channel brick...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 One of two aluminum alloy aircraft wheel halves that cracked in service from defects during forging. (a) Sectioned wheel half showing location of fracture. Dimensions given in inches. (b) Fracture surface showing what appeared to be the result of aluminum oxidation (dark gray patches More
Image
Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 17 EDX microprobe spectrum of arrow G in Fig. 13(a) , showing an embedded particle of aluminum oxide A 20 kV beam was used. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... appeared to be the result of aluminum oxidation (dark gray patches on light gray fracture area). (c) Section through the crack and the disrupted grain flow. Etched with sodium hydroxide. Approximately 8 1 2 × Investigation of Cracked Wheel Half After a cursory examination of the wheel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the Mark 22 assembly in the Vertical Tube Storage (VTS) section of K-reactor basin. The fuel rods are suspended underwater from 304-L stainless steel hangers. Note the nodules of aluminum oxide in scratches on the outer surface of the assemblies and around the aluminum/stainless steel interface. Fig...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
.... The fourth was severely hammered. It was concluded that the high temperatures developed in this engine created an environment too severe for 357 aluminum. Surfaces were so hot that the low-melting constituent melted. Then, the alloy oxidized rapidly to form Al2O3, an abrasive which further aggravated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and electrical box during construction. The water and dissolved impurities which it contained promoted oxidation. In the other incidents, greater care should have been taken in installation of the aluminum wiring. The assistance of Messrs. Steve Smith and Robert Franzese with the preparation of the graphic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... The stringerlike area was analyzed by electron microprobe. The results of the analysis showed that the area contained relatively large amounts of manganese oxide, iron oxide, and titanium oxide; medium amounts of copper oxide and aluminum oxide; and traces of chromium oxide, silicon oxide, and magnesium oxide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... with different morphologies and sizes. Figure 8a , d shows an inclusion that appears round with diameter of 8 μm, as oxide inclusions and sulfide inclusions by energy spectrum analysis including aluminum oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, and manganese sulfide. Figure 8b , e shows an inclusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... This white residue was identified as aluminum oxide, which resulted from the reaction of an aluminum mercury solid solution with atmospheric oxygen and/or water vapor. Small droplets of mercury were dispersed throughout this residue. Figure 16 shows metallic droplets on the interior surface of the pipe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... those of 400ES. Additionally, more aluminum oxides, formed by aluminum diffusion, were observed at the bond-coat/substrate interface of the 721ES samples. The operating environment caused high-temperature oxidation, hot corrosion, and low-cycle fatigue, thus producing serious degradation of hot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... and/or aluminum to form a protective layer of chromium or aluminum oxide (Cr 2 O 3 or Al 2 O 3 ) scale to resist oxidation and other forms of high-temperature corrosion. These oxide scales are slow growing. When an alloy is under sulfidation attack, sulfides of chromium, iron, and nickel are likely to form...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., so it often happens that some or much of the aluminum added to the steel ends up as an oxide rather than a nitride. The aluminum oxides are useless as grain-size controls. Aluminum oxides are not easily soluble in acids, while the aluminum nitrides are easily soluble. Thus, running the test...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001704
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... the sample with a water-cooled abrasive saw and vacuum mounting it in epoxy. The cured sample was ground through 600 grit abrasive paper, rough-polished with 6 micron diamond, then final polished using a 0.3 micron aluminum oxide slurry. The sample was electrolytically etched in a 10 percent oxalic acid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... The fuel rods are suspended underwater from 304-L stainless steel hangers. Note the nodules of aluminum oxide in scratches on the outer surface of the assemblies and around the aluminum/stainless steel interface. Figure 2 shows an underwater photograph of the aluminum storage racks storing spent fuel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... aluminum oxide powder. Samples were viewed with an optical microscope in the unetched condition first. These samples exhibited low inclusion content, and the secondary cracks were sharp with signs of branching as shown in Figures 7 , 8 . Fig. 7 Photomicrograph of secondary crack from failed...