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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to overheating during forging operations, can also cause machining failures in wrought metals ( Ref 27 ). Grain size variation in thin products ( Ref 27 ) and secondary crystallization (also called abnormal grain growth) ( Ref 28 ) during annealing of wrought stainless steels, copper, nickel, and aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... work. If the milling to obtain chips for analysis is done in a machine shop where other machining is done, it may be necessary to set up a protective “tent” (for example, out of aluminum foil) around the chips being collected, to prevent contamination by airborne chips from other machines. Most EDS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... “ Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products ,” A370 – A316 , ASTM 2. “Hardness and Conductivity Inspection of Wrought Aluminum Alloy Parts,” AMS 2658 Rev C, SAE, revised 2009 3. “ Standard Specification for Carbon Structural Steel,” A36/A36M-14 , ASTM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0045911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
...Abstract Abstract Within the first few months of operation of an 8 km (5 mile) long 455 mm (18 in.) diam high-pressure steam line between a coal-fired electricity-generating plant and a paper mill, several of the Inconel 600 bellows failed. The steam line operated at 6030 kPa (875 psi) and 420...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... working of wrought products. The article addresses the types of flaws or defects that can be introduced during the steel forging process itself, including defects originating in the ingot-casting process. Defects found in nonferrous forgings—titanium, aluminum, and copper and copper alloys—also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Analysis of Journal Bearings Used in Sugar Mills , Eng. Fail. Anal. , Vol 18 , 2011 , p 2093 – 2103 10.1016/j.engfailanal.2011.06.016 On the basis of geometric shapes, sliding bearings ( Fig. 1 ) are classified into flat, cylindrical, and spherical bearings. Flat sliding bearings include...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... History: Service behavior of other materials Unusual conditions before failure Fabricating operations, sequence Maintenance operations, sequence Heat-treating operations, sequence Compositions and thicknesses of layers of corrosion product found on inner surface of low-carbon steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... , Characterization of Corrosion Products in RTPF and All-Aluminum Microchannel Heat Exchangers , J. Fail. Anal. Prevent. , Vol 16 , 2016 , p 189 – 196 10.1007/s11668-016-0078-1 17. Shen S. , Li X. , Zhang P. , Nan Y. , and Song X. , Failure Analysis and Fatigue Investigation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and industries that have experienced SCC failures include (this list is not exhaustive): Aerospace: Aluminum alloys in structural aircraft components such as landing gear and wing components, stainless steel tubing used as part of the hydraulic or fuel systems, high-strength low-alloy steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... showed that the discoloration on the cylinder was associated with metal oxidation products coated with a thin oil film. One of the recommendations was to plate the OD of the cylinder with hard chromium to increase its resistance to erosion. Another recommendation was to reduce the amounts of water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... fracture surfaces had the appearance of biittle fracture. The entire exposed edge of the shell exhibited general and pitting corrosion. It was also covered with a thin, uniform layer of corrosion products. The gap between the ID of the shell and the edge of the head was completely filled with a hard...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... analysis, metallographic analysis, and simulated-service tests. It provides case studies for the analysis of SCC service failures and their occurrence in steels, stainless steels, and commercial alloys of aluminum, copper, magnesium, and titanium. aluminum alloys austenitic stainless steel carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...   Temperature data (magnitude and range)   Environmental conditions   Service loads/stresses Step 2: Clean failed parts or specimens Step 3: Perform nondestructive tests Macroscopic examination of wear/fracture surface  Presence of color or texture   Temper colors   Oxidation   Corrosion products...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... related to it. Figure 2 ( Ref 2 ) highlights the relationship between the various aspects of the design process and ways in which failure analysis is thoughtfully applied to improve the design process. Legal reasons for conducting failure analyses are also compelling, because of the shift in product...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and so on) and machining processes (drilling, turning, milling, and so on). Second, tools and dies are generally used at higher hardnesses than most other steel products; 58 to 68 HRC is a typical range. Dies for plastic molding or hot working are usually used at lower hardnesses, typically from 30 to 55...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., and so on) and machining processes (drilling, turning, milling, and so on). Second, tools and dies are generally used at higher hardnesses than most other steel products; 58 to 68 HRC is a typical range. Dies for plastic molding or hot working are usually used at lower hardnesses, typically from 30 to 55...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Electron acceptors used by microorganisms Table 1 Electron acceptors used by microorganisms Electron acceptor Reduction products Relevant microbiological groups O 2 H 2 O Aerobic Fe 3+ , iron (III) oxide Fe 2+ Iron reducing or, more generally, metal reducing NO 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... strength is associated with total elongation at the high side of the property range, not the low side. Also, in spite of uniform elongation being a much more important measure of necking and formability, it is rarely included in industry metal specifications or on the metal production-mill-certified...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... preparation (mill scale, coatings surface finish, etc.), environmental composition (trace contaminants, dissolved gases, etc.), temperature, flow rate, solution concentration, and degree of agitation or aeration. In addition, corrosion product films and other changes in surface composition can also occur...