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aluminum alloy die forgings

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... more cracking than aluminum-grain-refined material or the alloy grain refined using 0.06% V. Mismatch during forging caused material to flow in the wrong directions during both the forging operation and the trimming operation ( Fig. 4 ). At the trimming temperature (approximately 1100 °C, or 2000...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... mechanical properties: Minimum longitudinal properties of an aluminum alloy 2014-T6 die forging with a section thickness of 100 mm (4 in.) or less (which apply to this attachment fitting) are: Conclusions The presence of chromic acid stain on the fracture surface proved that the forging had...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of wrought products. The article addresses the types of flaws or defects that can be introduced during the steel forging process itself, including defects originating in the ingot-casting process. Defects found in nonferrous forgings—titanium, aluminum, and copper and copper alloys—also are covered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Two outboard main-wheel halves (aluminum alloy 2014-T6 forged) from a commercial aircraft were removed from service because of failure. One wheel half was in service for 54 days and had made 130 landings (about 1046 roll km, or 650 roll mi) when crack indications were discovered during...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... molds or by continuous casting techniques. Primary deformation processes, such as hot rolling, tube piercing, extrusion, and open-die forging, are then used for converting the cast structure. Many large open-die forgings are forged directly from ingots, while most closed-die and upset forgings...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article describes the characteristics of tools and dies and the causes of their failures. It discusses the failure mechanisms in tool and die materials that are important to nearly all manufacturing processes, but is primarily devoted to failures of tool steels used in cold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article discusses failure mechanisms in tool and die materials that are very important to nearly all manufacturing processes. It is primarily devoted to failures of tool steels used in cold working and hot working applications. The processes involved in the analysis of tool...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... 0.15 … Phosphorus 0.008 0.035 max Sulfur 0.023 0.040 max Vanadium 0.004 … Copper 0.17 … Aluminum 0.018 … Fig. 6 Weibull analysis of the depth of forged-in oxide scale Fig. 7 Statistical frequency distribution of the depth of forged-in oxide scale...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... testing. The fatigue cracks had initiated in the vicinity of these beads and propagated through the blade material. The blades were made of titanium alloy IMI 550, with a nominal composition of 4% Al, 4% Mo, were manufactured by the closed-die forging process. Targeting bosses flash buttons...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... die fatigue failure die design tool steel cracking fractography strain rate H13 (hot-work tool steel) UNS T20813 Al-6063 (6xxx series, wrought aluminum-magnesium silicon alloy) UNS A96063 ...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... It presents the international classification of common casting defects in a tabular form. austenitic steels cast aluminum alloys cast iron casting casting defects casting design castings centrifugal casting corrosion-resistant castings discontinuities ductile iron gravity die casting gray...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... properties of Cu–Ni–Si alloys . Mater. Sci. Eng. A 483–484 , 117 – 119 ( 2008 ) 10.1016/j.msea.2006.12.163 3. Locker S.A. , Yun M. , Hunt J.D. et al. , Micro- and macrodefects in thin sheet twin-roll cast aluminum alloys . Mater. Charact . 37 , 301 – 310 ( 1996 ) 10.1016...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... face plate. No other metallurgical anomalies was observed that could have contributed to the initiation of the progressive failure. EDS analyses on the club face plate fracture surface detected titanium, aluminum, and vanadium in concentrations consistent with Ti–6Al–4V alloy. A small...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of grains by heat treatment. It is thus more important to control the processing of such alloys to avoid forming an undesirable grain size. Alloys that contain grain-growth inhibitors may be subject to excessive and nonuniform grain growth if heated excessively. Aluminum is widely used as a deoxidizer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... second-phase particles have a lower melting point than the aluminum alloy itself. When heated to a high enough temperature, these particles will melt and form a low-melting eutectic by mingling with the surrounding area. Upon cooling, a eutectic, rounded structure is formed. Rosettes indicate exposure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... abrasive for ferrous alloys, and SiC is the preferred abrasive for nonferrous metals and minerals. Wheels have different bond strengths and are recommended based on the suitability of their bond strength and abrasive type for the material to be sectioned. In general, as the hardness of a material increases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in permanent molded and die cast aluminum alloys Hard spots (a) Defects that under some circumstances could contribute, either directly or indirectly, to casting failures. Adapted from International Atlas of Casting Defects , American Foundrymen’s Society, Des Plaines, IL Table 1 presents...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are very important to failure prevention. Failures have also occurred where names, numbers, and other identification marks are die stamped or imprinted on highly stressed surfaces. Information on the effects of identification marks is provided in the articles “Fatigue Failures” and “Failures of Shafts...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... illumination for this work, dark-field illumination often produces superior results. Figure 2 illustrates the use of bright-field and dark-field illumination for viewing a brittle fracture in an Fe-Cr-Al alloy, plus a SEM fractograph of the same area. Dark-field illumination is better at collecting the light...