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aluminum alloy 2024

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Top view (a) of cracked aluminum alloy 2024-T351 pitostatic connectors. Arrows indicate cracks. (b) Cross section of one connector showing elongated grains that were cut to form connector threads. 25× (c) Cross section showing intergranular cracking with multiple branching in one More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Resistance spot welds joining aluminum alloy 2024-T8511 stiffeners to the aluminum alloy 6061-T62 skin of an aircraft drop tank failed during slosh and vibration testing. Visual examination of the fracture surfaces showed that the failure was by tensile or bending overload...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047072
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... aerodynamic shell and an inner stiffener shell, both of 1.3 mm (0.050 in.) thick aluminum alloy 6061-T6, and four attachment clips of 1 mm (0.040 in.) thick alclad aluminum alloy 2024-T42. Each clip was joined to the outer shell by 12 spot welds and was also joined to the stiffener. Analysis (visual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract A series of resistance spot welds joining Z-shape and C-shape members of an aircraft drop-tank structure failed during ejection testing. The members were fabricated of alclad aluminum alloy 2024-T62. The back surface of the C-shape members showed severe electrode-indentation marks off...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Pitostatic system connectors were being found cracked on several aircraft. Two of the cracked connectors made of 2024-T351 aluminum alloy were submitted for failure analysis. The connectors had cut pipelike threads that were sealed with Teflon-type tape when installed. Longitudinal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... , and 6 ) indicates very rapid re-solidification after melting. Figure 4 shows the cladding alloy on 2024-T3, which is the nearly pure aluminum alloy 1230. The slight intrusion of the 1230 cladding alloy layer into the cast layer indicates the higher melting point of the 1230 alloy (645 to 660°C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... of only aluminum alloys 6061-T6 and T651 and 2024-T6, T62, and T851. Fittings Fuel lines Marine environments Missiles 2017 UNS A92017 2014 UNS A92014 Stress-corrosion cracking During a routine inspection, cracks were discovered in several aluminum alloy coupling nuts ( Fig. 1a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... and/or corrosion fatigue. It was concluded that crack propagation of the fracture in the wing panel occurred by a combination of corrosion and high-cycle fatigue in the end fastener holes. It was recommended that future panels be manufactured of 2024 aluminum. Corrosion fatigue Crack initiation Crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... is described as being “saturated with microcracks.” It should be noted that the mechanical properties of all components of the assembly met specifications. Fatigue of an Adhesive Bonded Alloy Sheet Bonded samples of 2024-T3 sheet were fatigue tested at various stress levels. Failures could...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract An aircraft engine in which an in-flight fire had occurred was dismantled and examined. A bracket assembly fabricated from 2024 aluminum, one of several failed components, was of prime interest because of apparent heat damage. Scanning electron microscopy was used to compare laboratory...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... second-phase particles have a lower melting point than the aluminum alloy itself. When heated to a high enough temperature, these particles will melt and form a low-melting eutectic by mingling with the surrounding area. Upon cooling, a eutectic, rounded structure is formed. Rosettes indicate exposure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of mean stress. Fig. 2 S-N curve for unnotched 2024-T4 aluminum alloy bar. Source: Ref 2 Variable-Amplitude Loading and Cumulative Damage While constant-amplitude loading is useful for defining fatigue properties and comparing test data, variable-amplitude loading, such as that shown...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in making connections to an aluminum alloy 2024-T431 valve body produced excessive stress in the threads and resulted in failure of the valve body by SCC in a service environment of hydraulic fluid that contained small amounts of moisture and chloride. Similarly, stresses on tapered threads on a cast...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ridges in stage II. The plateaus are usually normal to the direction of maximum tensile stress ( Fig. 13a ). A transition from stage I to stage II in a coarse-grain specimen of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 is shown in Fig. 13(b) . The presence of inclusions rich in iron and silicon did not affect the fracture...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... blade spar shank was constructed of 2014-T652 aluminum alloy. The spar was hollow with the cavity filled with a lead wool ballast material and sealed with a thermoset material. One blade separated in flight, but fortunately a successful emergency landing was made. The outboard section that had separated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... blade spar shank was constructed of 2014-T652 aluminum alloy. The spar was hollow, with the cavity filled with a lead wool ballast material and sealed with a thermoset material. One blade separated in flight, but fortunately a successful emergency landing was made. The outboard section that had...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and industries that have experienced SCC failures include (this list is not exhaustive): Aerospace: Aluminum alloys in structural aircraft components such as landing gear and wing components, stainless steel tubing used as part of the hydraulic or fuel systems, high-strength low-alloy steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... environmental conditions, typically 5 × 10 6 for steels and ≥10 7 for aluminum alloys, provides a useful and beneficial result of S - N testing. However, other materials do not always exhibit this infinite-life response. Instead, many materials display a continuously decreasing stress-life response, even...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in yellow Fig. 8 Radiograph of area A in Fig. 7 showing white areas (not penetrated by X-rays) owing to the presence of mercury in secondary cracks Fig. 13 Plot showing the variation in the extent of sub-critical cracking for a 2024-T4 aluminium alloy plate with the amount of mercury...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., alloy selection, improper mechanical/thermal processing, improper assembly, and failure to accommodate an adverse operating environment. Fractography provides a unique tool to determine potential causal factors, such as: Whether a material was used above its design stress Whether the failed...