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alumina refractory lining

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... inspection, chemical analysis, microstructural characterization, and mechanical property testing. The pipe was made from nonresulfurized carbon steel as specified and was lined with an alumina refractory. Visual inspection revealed cracks in the refractory lining, which corresponded with the location...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... , High-Temperature Corrosion of Technical Ceramics , Fordham R.J. , Ed., Elsevier Applied Science , 1990 , p 93 – 108 17. Lowrance K. , Refractory Lining Construction , Pneumatic Steelmaking, Volume 3 on Refractories , Rigaud M.A. and Landy R.A. , Ed., Iron and Steel...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Melting points of common refractories Name(s) Formula Melting point °C °F Corundum, alpha alumina Al 2 O 3 2054 3729 Baddeleyite, zirconia ZrO 2 2700 4892 Periclase, magnesia MgO 2852 5166 Chromic oxide, chromia Cr 2 O 3 2330 4226 Lime, calcia CaO 2927 5301...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...–iron–chromium alloy Dip tube ¼-in. thick tube, Incoloy 825, nickel–iron–chromium alloy Draft tube ½-in. thick, Type 316 stainless steel Refractory lining of combustion chamber interior Wall: dense chromia-alumina brick Cone region: dense high chromia brick Castable refractory beneath...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... (approximately 45 × 45 × 45 cm) were refractory lined with alumina zirconia silicate and high chrome K3 brick. Four Inconel 690 sheathed molybdenum electrodes, one on each wall, were installed below the molten glass level to provide Joule heating. Temperatures in excess of 1300 °C were not uncommon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... life and would be ready for revamping. For a future solution, following modern design concepts, it was recommended that the Incoloy 800Hor H1 pigtails be changed to a low-alloy steel, such as 2.25Cr-1Mo, protected by refractory lining and waterjackets. How Failure Could Have Been Prevented...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A failure analysis was conducted in late 1996 on two rolls that had been used in the production of iron and steel powder. The rolls had elongated over their length such that the roll trunnions had impacted with the furnace wall refractory. The result was distortion and bowing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-5416(72)90109-7 54. Hung H.M. , Ai J.-H. , and Scully J.R. , Effects of Prior Cold Work on Hydrogen Trapping and Diffusion in API X-70 Line Pipe Steel during Electrochemical Charging , Corrosion , Vol 70 ( No. 2 ), 2014 , p 166 – 184 10.5006/0990 55. Hirth J.P...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in the form of fins (or flash) without change in principal casting dimensions A 111 Thin fins (or flash) at the parting line or at core prints Joint flash or fins A 112 Projections in the form of veins on the casting surface Veining or finning A 113 Network of projections on the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... , Microstructural Characterization of Surface Layers Formed on Alloy Steel During Erosion-Oxidation in a Fluidized Bed , J. Mater. Sci. Vol 32 , 1997 , p 4575 – 4583 10.1023/A:1018677418941 17. Crowley M.S. , Know Causes of, Solutions to, CFB-Boiler Refractory Problems , Power , Vol 136...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... , 1997 , p 4575 – 4583 10.1023/A:1018677418941 16. Crowley M.S. , Know Causes of, Solutions to, CFB-Boiler Refractory Problems , Power , Vol 136 , Jan 1992 , p 54 – 57 17. Tucker R.C. and Ashari A.A. , The Structure Property Relationship of Erosion Resistant...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at high temperatures. The water vapor may originate from the charge materials, slag ingredients and alloy additions, refractory linings, ingot molds, or even the atmosphere itself, if steps are not taken to prevent such contamination. The resulting hydrogen goes into solution at elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... steel is made in a furnace normally used to make high-alloy steels. The refractory lining of the furnace may impart sufficient residual chromium and other alloying elements to a heat of low-carbon steel that problems occur when components made from that heat are joined using standard welding procedures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... for sulfide, alumina, and silicate inclusions ( Ref 19 ). Hard inclusions in the workpiece material can abrade the cutting tool material ( Ref 20 ). Inclusions, porosity, and oxide films in powder metallurgy steels can reduce their machinability, but closing the pores, increased cleanliness, and sulfide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and susceptibility to cracking. Such steels are sometimes produced inadvertently when low-carbon steel is made in a furnace normally used to make high-alloy steels or when large amounts of recycled steel material are used to make steel without additional refining to remove such elements. The refractory lining...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with this problem is produced using the Haigh diagram, with the Goodman line connecting the ultimate strength on S m , and the fatigue limit, corrected fatigue limit, or fatigue strength on the S a axis ( Fig. 2 ). This line then defines the boundary of combined mean-amplitude pairs for anticipated safe-life...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-diameter scale at the fracture region measured up to 1.3 mm (0.050 in., or 50 mils). A small quantity of loose debris was removed from the inside of one of the tubes; the particles were simply poured out as chunky bits. Samples for microstructural analysis were taken through the failure lip, in line...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... therefore be based on loads, nominal stresses, structural stresses, or local stresses. For elastic-plastic behavior, local strains should be the basis of the assessment. The finite-life regime in a double-log plot (log S a -log N ) can be approximated by a straight line. Using any reference point...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the line-of-sight principle. It can occur in any part of the boiler. High internal steam pressure and temperature within the superheater and reheater tubes contributes to the damage severity. If the original failure is not detected in time, it can result in a chain reaction of failures involving multiple...