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alloying elements

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... modification through heat treatment is hardenability. Hardenability is a term used to quantify the relative response of a material to thermal treatment transformation to martensite based upon alloying elements and other variables. Many researchers have empirically determined the individual and combined effects...
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 12 EDS spectrum of a high quality 13/16 in. wrench socket showing alloying elements such as Ni and Cr that were not present in the failed socket More
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 8 EDS scan of polished specimen for alloy composition. Element Composition, % Iron 84.66 Chromium 12.61 Nickel 0.98 Silicon 0.27 Manganese 1.48 Molybdenum 0.00 More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... constituents Fig. 11 X-ray map of the region shown in Fig. 9 indicating concentration of oxygen in Fe rich part of the matrix Fig. 12 EDS spectrum of a high quality 13/16 in. wrench socket showing alloying elements such as Ni and Cr that were not present in the failed socket Fig...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... elements) to preferentially partition into the liquid phase, which has higher solubility for alloying elements. This would leave a solute-depleted zone around the rosette, which has a lower density of hardening precipitates, thus causing this zone to etch less. Figures 7 and 8 reveal additional...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... to the right side of the picture is a broad segregation band. Here the zone-wise less powerful attack of the etchant is the result of the accumulation of alloying elements as well as of carbides in the segregation bands. The increased concentration of alloying elements makes these bands vulnerable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with both bulk hardness and conductivity provides an indication of the alloy and temper ( Ref 2 ). There are times when a conclusive PMI is not possible due to alloys having overlapping weight percentages for similar elements as well as overlapping mechanical properties. In this case, other methods may...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of iron acts as a grain refiner and also increases the yield strength [ 1 ]. The use of these three alloying elements creates a metallurgically complex alloy that needs to be strictly controlled to obtain all of the desired properties. Without the proper fabrication procedures, the corrosion resistant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... on lead, new lead-free solders had to be developed. Several alloying elements are known to stop or slow tin pest development. The most commonly used element is lead (~5%). Antimony and bismuth (~0.5%) are also used, though these are typically less affective. It is thought that these alloying elements...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... they are totally exposed to the severe environment comprising saline water, CO 2 , H 2 S, low pH, high temperature of 82 °C. The corrosion was severe, and pronounced metal loss took place. The bolts acted as an anode because of their lower content of alloying elements (austenitic stainless steel), and nuts have...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... based on alloys of similar composition. The response of the instrument to the alloys present is rarely linear with respect to composition. Thus, a general idea of the expected amount of any element is required in order to determine the composition in an accurate and precise manner. Of course, if enough...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to depletion of chromium and breakaway corrosion. Once sulfur has reacted with the alloy, sulfur tends to preferably react with chromium or aluminum to form sulfides; this may cause redistribution of the scale-forming elements or interfere with the formation of protective oxide scales. Nickel-chromium alloys...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and matrix carbides ( Figs. 4 , 5 ). During austenitization, the austenite dissolves significant carbon and other alloying elements which can lead to precipitation of carbides upon hardening and tempering. This leads to an increase in hardness by about 3–5 HRC [ 15 ]. In ASTM A128 grade B-4, the usual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... zone indicated a depletion ofchromium and nickel, the two main alloying elements of AISI 9310 steel. The spectrum from the remaining material was consistent with the specified steel. Mechanical Properties Hardness The hardnesses of the case and core were 63 and 38 HRC, respectively...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001182
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... cracks by means of which the corrosion has penetrated more deeply leading to cracks in the metal. As a result of diffusion particularly of the alloying elements iron, chromium, nickel and manganese, various fringe-like enrichment zones have established themselves along the edges of the cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., and cobalt; titanium, aluminum, and molybdenum were minor alloying elements. Tungsten, niobium, and tantalum were not detected. A more accurate chemical analysis revealed the following composition: 53.7% Ni, 18 to 20% Cr, 18.2% Co, 3.7% Ti, 3.7% Mo, 2.5% Al, 0.1 to 0.2% Fe, <0.1% Nb, 0.085% C, and 0.006...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in the matrix—is provided in Fig. 10 . The corresponding EDXA spectra are shown in Fig. 11 and 12 . Apart from the anticipated alloy elements (nickel, copper, etc.), peaks indicating the presence of sulfur and chlorine were detected in the precipitates—an effect that was stronger for the precipitates...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... 15. French D.N. , Metallurgical Failures in Fossil Fired Boilers ( Wiley , New York , 2000 ) 16. Kawahara Y. , High temperature corrosion mechanisms and effect of alloying elements for materials used in waste incineration environment . Corros. Sci . 44 ( 2 ), 223 – 245...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a metallurgical failure analysis process. Alloy/materials selection plays a critical role during the design of components due to various advantages and disadvantages each alloy/material may have under specific service conditions. Furthermore, individual elements within the alloys can have either positive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046972
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... examination of a longitudinal specimen cut through the fracture-origin area revealed several oxide-filled cracks (characteristic thermal fatigue cracks) below the fracture surface ( Fig. 1a ). In high-temperature alloys, surface oxidation at elevated temperatures can deplete alloying elements (notably...