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alloying elements

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to obtain material property data for the FE simulations. A stationary spectrometer (MAXx LMM04, SPECTRO Analytical Instruments) was used to analyze the elemental breakdown of the alloy. The spectrometer uses the Spark Analyzer Vision Software and is well suited for applications like die cast or injection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001595
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... transformation to martensite based upon alloying elements and other variables. Many researchers have empirically determined the individual and combined effects of alloying elements. A comparison measure, identified as the critical diameter(D I ), was implemented to estimate the hardening response of a steel from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract The case study presented in this article details the failure investigation of an M50 alloy steel bearing used in a jet engine gearbox drive assembly. It discusses the investigative steps and analytic tools used to determine the root cause, highlighting the importance...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion, intergranular corrosion, and velocity-affected corrosion. The article contains a table that lists combinations of alloys and environments subjected to selective leaching and the elements removed by leaching. corrosion crevice corrosion dealuminification...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... above, it was decided that tube life might be extended by selecting an alloy, such as RA 333, with a higher chromium content and with an additional element, like silicon, resistant to carburization-oxidation. The tubes had an original wall thickness of 3.0 mm (0.120 in.) and were made of three...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract Heating elements, consisting of strips, 40 mm x 2 mm, of the widely used 80Ni-20Cr resistance heating alloy, and designed to withstand a temperature of 1175 deg C, were rendered unusable by scaling after a few months service in a through-type annealing furnace, Although the temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001575
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of Cu alloy (AMS4845) bushings force fit into AA2024-T3 Al alloy spacing elements. It was found that uncontrolled fit interference between the two components had led to Cu alloy overstress. Thermal cycling under operating conditions yielded the material. The dilation was directed inward to the shaft...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Al, S concentrated sites as well as relatively uniform distribution of normal constituents such as Fe and O. Figure 12 shows EDS spectrum of a similar original (un-failed) socket manufactured with PM but have a better chemistry (i.e., contains alloying elements such as Ni and Cr). Obviously, Cr...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0049796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... spectra were collected ( Fig. 4 and 5 ). In addition to the metallic elements in the pin or bridgewire, substantial amounts of chlorine were detected. In each case, chlorine was associated with the corrosion product. These alloys are known to be susceptible to corrosion in chlorine-containing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
.... Transverse section. Etch: V2A pickle. 75× Abstract Abstract A coil made of a nickel-chromium alloy (Material No. 2.4869) with approx. 80Ni and 20Cr had burned through after a brief period of operation as a heating element in a brazing furnace. The protective atmosphere consisted of an incompletely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., bulk chemistry in conjunction with both bulk hardness and conductivity provides an indication of the alloy and temper ( Ref 2 ). There are times when a conclusive PMI is not possible due to alloys having overlapping weight percentages for similar elements as well as overlapping mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... elements) to preferentially partition into the liquid phase, which has higher solubility for alloying elements. This would leave a solute-depleted zone around the rosette, which has a lower density of hardening precipitates, thus causing this zone to etch less. Figures 7 and 8 reveal additional...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... ksi), and an elastic modulus of 116 GPa (16820 ksi). 16 The higher yield strength and lower elastic modulus of the titanium alloy have significant beneficial effects on the resulting stresses and stress concentrations experienced by the fixation device. However, in these linear finite-element...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Two clamps that support overhead power lines in an electrified rail system fractured within six months of being installed. The clamps are made of CuNiSi alloy, a type of precipitation-strengthening nickel-silicon bronze. To identify the root cause of failure, the rail operator...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of separation, showing the extent of the flat fracture (arrows), the set-back for fairing-in the fiberglass pockets, and the location of strain gages in a prior test program. Fig. 12 Cyclic crack growth rate as a function of the change in stress intensity for 6061-T651 aluminum alloy. Source: Ref 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... to the right side of the picture is a broad segregation band. Here the zone-wise less powerful attack of the etchant is the result of the accumulation of alloying elements as well as of carbides in the segregation bands. The increased concentration of alloying elements makes these bands vulnerable...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... and Wiegard H. , Electrical Contact Materials , Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials , Vol 2 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1990 , p 840 ­ 868 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001097 The element tin has three crystalline forms: Grey (alpha) tin—cubic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... base alloys (i.e., Incoloy 825 and Inconel 625), are used in an environment containing CO 2 and H 2 S. However, most of these alloys cannot be used in the presence of elemental sulfur, where the corrosion is expected to be very severe and special alloys such as Inconel 625 can be used [ 3 , 4...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... , and Stringer J. , Influence of Alloying Elements on the Development and Maintenance of Protective Scales , Oxid. Met. , Vol 44 , 1995 , p 113 7. Shütze M. , Mechanical Properties of Oxide Scales , Oxid. Met. , Vol 44 , 1995 , p 29 8. Smith R.A. , Corrosion , 2nd ed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... The addition of iron acts as a grain refiner and also increases the yield strength [ 1 ]. The use of these three alloying elements creates a metallurgically complex alloy that needs to be strictly controlled to obtain all of the desired properties. Without the proper fabrication procedures, the corrosion...