1-20 of 69 Search Results for

alkalinity

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to the welded fin on the crown of the top tubes and located in an area near the upward bend of the tube. The inside of all the tubes were covered with a loosely adherent, black, alkaline, powdery deposit comprised mainly of magnetite. The corroded areas, however, had relatively less deposit. The morphology...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... chemically milled section of the floor. An alkaline etch-type cleaner was used on the panels before chemical milling and before painting. Various tests and measurements indicated that the aluminum alloy used for the fuel-tank floors conformed to the specifications for 7178-T6. Low power magnification...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Welded steel storage vessels used to hold mildly alkaline solution were produced in exactly the same manner from deep-drawn aluminum-killed SAE 1006 low-carbon steel sheet. After the cylindrical shell was drawn, a top low-carbon steel closure was welded to the inside diameter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090881
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... inspection, SEM fractographs, and micrographs) showed evidence of IGSCC initiating at the OD and IGA under ridgelike deposits that were analyzed and found to be slightly alkaline to very alkaline (caustic) in nature. Crack oxide analysis indicated sulfate levels in excess of expected values. The analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... that water contained in the tube during shutdowns had accumulated and cumulative damage due to oxygen pitting resulted in perforation of one of the tubes. Filling the system with condensate or with treated boiler water was suggested as a corrective action. Alkalinity was suggested to be maintained at a pH...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... The form of cracking which was mostly intergranular. Examination at higher magnification disclosed that a selective attack had taken place on the carbide constituents of the pearlite grains. An alkaline deposit on the fireside surface of the tube resulted from the evaporation of boiler water which had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... to anodizing. A hot inhibited alkaline cleaner was also recommended during cleaning prior to anodizing. The panels should be dichromate sealed after anodizing. The use of deionized water was also recommended during the dichromate sealing operation. In addition, the use of an epoxy primer prior to shipment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
...Abstract Abstract An 8 in. diam stainless steel black liquor feed pipe to a carbon steel digester had failed within one year of service. The material was type 316 molybdenum-containing austenitic stainless steel. The service environment was alkaline black liquor at 175 deg C (350 deg F...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
...Abstract Abstract The Pandia digester is a long cylindrical vessel which uses alkaline sulfite liquor to cook sawdust for pulping. The inlet cone was fabricated from AISI 304L stainless steel with E308 welds. Typical liquor concentration was approximately 80% NaOH, 20% Na2SO3 with chloride...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., chemistry, SEM, and metallurgical analyses. SEM imaging revealed microvoid coalescence within the fracture zone. The microvoids were flat and smooth edged indicating insufficient bonding. In addition, a cross sectional sample, mounted and etched using alkaline chromate, revealed an oxygen-rich zone...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... and therefore was soft ( Fig. 2 ). During treatment with sodium hydroxide or alkaline sodium picrate solution the alloy zone was etched ( Figs. 3 ) and the metal completely dissolved. Fig. 1 Section through a sliver. 10× a). Etch: Nital. Section through a sliver. 10×. b). Etch: Sodium hydroxide 1:10...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in the welds and HAZS. The field welding of the pipe joints had apparently been done under highly constrained conditions, using inadequate welding procedures. Although carbon steels are acceptable for corrosion service in alkaline kraft pulping, highly stressed areas, particularly non-stress-relieved welds...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... a moderately alkaline environment to keep the protective oxide film in place [ 1 ]. The waterside corrosion is greatly influenced by the amount of corrosion product deposited on the wall of the tube. The deposit buildups are most likely to occur where flow is disrupted by bends; welds with backing rings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
..., constructed, and used structure, there should be no problem of steel corrosion in concrete during the design life. Such protection is attributable to the highly alkaline chemical environment in which the steel resides. The integrity and protective quality of the oxide film formed on reinforcing steel due...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... The white deposit was 100% water soluble and had a pH of 9.6 (slightly alkaline). Spectrographic examination showed the surface scale to contain a high amount of sodium, a small amount of tin, a high trace of zinc, and traces of lead and calcium. Chemical analysis of the spring material showed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... clearly revealed evidence of dezincification, which basically has two forms: the uniform (or layer) type, which seems to favor the high brasses and acid environments, and the plug type, which seems to occur in the low brasses and neutral, alkaline, or slightly acidic conditions. These are general...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... museum facility. Table 1 Water quality test results from museum facility. Property Cold Water Hot Water Alkalinity (ppm) 79 33 Bicarbonate (ppm) 79 33 Sodium (ppm) 70 20 Chloride (ppm) 13 16 Sulfate (ppm) 16 12 Iron (ppm) 0.4 1.2 Total Hardness (ppm) 25 30...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0048819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... period of time. Caustic embrittlement appeared most plausible as the cause of failure because of the presence of KOH and the known role of KOH in stress-corrosion failures in plain carbon steel vessels. However, the presence of arsenic can induce hydrogen embrittlement under alkaline conditions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Fig. 3 Typical damage to the nickel anodes. (a) Initiation of the process. (b) and (c) Badly damaged anodes Surface Examination Chemical Analysis/Identification Discussion Most Probable Cause Remedial Action Upgrading of heavy water is achieved by the electrolysis of alkaline...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...) and a pH of 1.5 to 2 for several hours. The pH levels of the black liquor and steam condensate are maintained at about 13 and 7.8, respectively—degrees of alkalinity that are relatively benign with respect to corrosive attack on nickel-base superalloys and type 304 stainless steel. Additionally, the boiler...