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alkaline resistance

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... then evaluated for polarization resistance and corrosion rate when immersed in the mildly alkaline product that is stored in the tanks. The tanks were all studied at ambient temperature. Electrochemical Impedance Electrochemical corrosion test cells were assembled to expose the surface of each panel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A resistance-welded carbon steel superheater tube made to ASME SA-276 specifications failed by pitting corrosion and subsequent perforation, which caused the tube to leak. The perforation was found to have occurred at a low point in a bend near the superheater outlet header...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... ) and sulfate (0.0024 kg/m 3 ) content, and the absence of sulfide and nitrate. The water was slightly alkaline (pH 7.9) and presented Hangelier and Ryzner stability index values of −0.8 and 9.4, respectively. The estimated water resistivity was 125 Ω . m, based on the TDS content (0.0526 kg/m 3 ). A water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... Abstract The Pandia digester is a long cylindrical vessel which uses alkaline sulfite liquor to cook sawdust for pulping. The inlet cone was fabricated from AISI 304L stainless steel with E308 welds. Typical liquor concentration was approximately 80% NaOH, 20% Na2SO3 with chloride...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... appears to be the result of a combination of pitting and stress corrosion, most likely due to chlorides. The factory was recommended to use molybdenum-alloyed steels (type 18/10 or 18/12) which are more resistant to local disruption of passivating films and pitting than molybdenum-free types such as 18/8...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... at about 13 and 7.8, respectively—degrees of alkalinity that are relatively benign with respect to corrosive attack on nickel-base superalloys and type 304 stainless steel. Additionally, the boiler water is treated with amines, which are corrosion inhibitors. Nitric acid is much more corrosively aggressive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...-atomic emission spectroscopy corrosion resistance SA 210A1 (medium carbon steel) Background of Failure During the course of addressing a problem in a gas air heater, the boiler unit in question was shut down to cool. During cooling, heavy water leak was noticed at the bottom of the furnace...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... It was concluded that stress-corrosion cracks grew out from the rust pits. The pin material was changed from 300M steel to PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel, which is highly resistant to rusting and SCC and the jacking control system was modified to prevent overdriving. Landing gear Materials substitution Pitting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... path, which is characteristic for caustic corrosion cracks. It was recommended that the internal stresses be removed through annealing or alternatively lye-resistant steel should be used. Boilers Riveted joints Steam Fe-0.05C-0.38Mn Stress-corrosion cracking Steels with nitrogen, when...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... malfunction was attributed to the accelerated dissolution of the carbon steel anode top, dislodgment of grains from the material, and subsequent closing of the small annular space between the anode and the cathode by debris from the anode top. Cladding of the carbon steel top with a corrosion-resistant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...: modification of the processing parameters to reduce the salt deposition and / or change of bar materials to a more resistant alloy. Castings Fluxing Fused salts Hot gas corrosion Ironmaking Pelleting Sintering furnaces HH UNS J93503 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Background...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to ∼100 to 200 °C (∼210 to 390 °F). The Si 3 N 4 exhibits higher resistance in alkaline solutions than in alkali melts and is rapidly attacked by (Na 2 SO 4 , Na 2 SO 4  − NaCl, Na 2 SO 4  + V 2 O 5 ) melts but has good resistance to chloride melts NaCl + KCl up to 600 °C (1110 °F), and up to 1100 °C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in the type of material. Iron with a higher elastic modulus should assist in reducing damage by modifying the vibration characteristics of the liner. More corrosion-resistant irons alloyed with chromium and nickel would possibly show an advantage, but unfortunately they possess inherently poor wear resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Hastelloy X nickel-base superalloy 1205 2200 1 HX (17Cr-66Ni-bal Fe) 1150 2100 1 (a) Seamless tube. (b) Electric resistance welded tube Iron oxides alone are not protective above 550 °C (1020 °F) ( Ref 5 ). Chromium, aluminum, and/or silicon assist in forming scales, which...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... resistance of the metal because the sites of the anodic and cathodic reactions are not known, nor are they predictable. However, it is possible to increase the electrical resistance of the electrolyte and thereby reduce corrosion. Very pure water is much less corrosive than impure or natural waters. The low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... It is not practical to increase the electrical resistance of the metal, because the sites of the anodic and cathodic reactions are not known, nor are they predictable. However, it is possible to increase the electrical resistance of the electrolyte and thereby reduce corrosion. Very pure water is much less corrosive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001901
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... in general and POM in particular are susceptible to thermal attack and chemical attack (via acidic, alkaline, and oxidative antagonists), both of which lead to depoloymerization. The Material Safety Data Sheet for Delrin recommends that, during processing, the polymeric melting temperature be less than 230°C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Analysis of cooling water pH valve 8.0 Conductivity, mmho 706 Sillica, ppm SiO 2 25.5 Total iron, ppm Fe 0.22 C14854, ppm 148 Free chlorine, ppm Cl 2 0 Chloride, ppm Cl 100 Total alkalinity, ppm 100 Total hardness, ppm 140 Cycles, hardness 4.4 Turbidity, FAU...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... resistance to the material. As the thickness of the film increases, the rate of formation falls and ultimately becomes insignificant. In certain environments a magnetite film possesses self-healing properties and rapidly reforms when damaged, so that if bare metal becomes exposed locally the protective film...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... salts formation, these salts not only hamper cooling but can also hydrolyze under discontinuities producing local conditions of low pH, while the boiler water remains alkaline. In the sites where pH is low, the protective film of Fe 3 O 4 is dissolved, ant the steel is attacked. Besides, high contents...