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alkaline etching

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... milled section of the floor. An alkaline etch-type cleaner was used on the panels before chemical milling and before painting. Various tests and measurements indicated that the aluminum alloy used for the fuel-tank floors conformed to the specifications for 7178-T6. Low power magnification, fractographs...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 a). Structure of a sliver, etch: alkaline sodium picramate. View. 100× unetched: steel etched: alloy. b). Structure of a sliver, etch: alkaline sodium picramate. Alloy. 500× More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... was acquired and subjected to hardness, chemistry, SEM, and metallurgical analyses. SEM imaging revealed microvoid coalescence within the fracture zone. The microvoids were flat and smooth edged indicating insufficient bonding. In addition, a cross sectional sample, mounted and etched using alkaline chromate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... ( Fig. 2 ). During treatment with sodium hydroxide or alkaline sodium picrate solution the alloy zone was etched ( Figs. 3 ) and the metal completely dissolved. Fig. 1 Section through a sliver. 10× a). Etch: Nital. Section through a sliver. 10×. b). Etch: Sodium hydroxide 1:10. Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... covered with a loosely adherent, black, alkaline, powdery deposit comprised mainly of magnetite. The corroded areas, however, had relatively less deposit. The morphology of the corrosion damage was typical of alkaline corrosion and confirmed that the boiler tubes failed as a result of steam blanketing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... of the boiler was polished and etched with Fry-solution, which revealed parallel striations formed due to the cold bending of the plate. The zones of slip were concentrated around the rivet holes. The cracks were formed here. The structure examination proved that the cracks had taken an exactly intercrystalline...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... confirmed that neither carburization nor decarburization had occurred on the surface of either pin. Alkaline chromate etching confirmed that no intergranular oxidation products were present. The microstructure was typical of tempered martensite and was satisfactory. Conclusions Overdriving...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Macrostructural examination, either by cold etching (more common) or hot etching, is very useful for detecting gross problems. Prior-austenite grain size is frequently evaluated by the Shepherd fracture grain size technique, a simple but accurate approach. X-ray diffraction can be used to determine the amount...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Macrostructural examination, either by cold etching (more common) or hot etching, is very useful for detecting gross problems. Prior-austenite grain size is frequently evaluated by the Shepherd fracture grain size technique, a simple but accurate approach. X-ray diffraction can be used to determine the amount...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Fig. 1 Expected formability of tube (a) and observed cracking in embrittled tube after flattening (b) Fig. 2 Intergranular etching of embrittled tube Fig. 3 (a) Fracture surface.(b)Scatter map for tellurium.(c) Scatter map for carbon Abstract The causes of cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... 0.01 2.19 2.55 Atomic 2.49 38.86 0.10 50.96 0.66 0.01 3.25 3.65 Fig. 3 Micrographs of grate bar that suffered hot corrosion. (a) Unetched, showing external oxide scale and internal sulfide particles (light gray area). (b) Etched, showing external oxide scale along...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to this solution at 300°/400°C. showed an increase in weight in contrast to the reduction which occurred in alkaline solutions, and the black oxide film that was formed was of a much greater thickness. Other specimens, treated in a stainless, as opposed to a mild, steel vessel, showed consistently high weight...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., ppm 148 Free chlorine, ppm Cl 2 0 Chloride, ppm Cl 100 Total alkalinity, ppm 100 Total hardness, ppm 140 Cycles, hardness 4.4 Turbidity, FAU 24.00 Total hardness, ppm 175 Cycles, silica 4.6 Fig. 10 Specimen at leak location, designations ( a )–( d...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the carbon content of the base metal. This high hardness is consistent with the carbon content and indicates a high susceptibility to cracking upon cooling or deformation. Fig. 5 Section through arc-gouged drain groove showing thin layer of dendritic structure containing cracks. Etched with nital. 55...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and polished-and-etched samples by optical and electron microscopy forms a significant part of the failure investigation. Besides providing information on various microstructural features, such as cracks, porosity, inclusions, segregation, phase distribution, and others, it also reveals the effect...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... These pits are readily visible in Fig. 4(b) , a close-up view of one rivet hole, because their surfaces were covered with nickel plating that was not removed during grinding and etching of the specimen. The pits as well as other defects found at the rivet holes and at the bottom end of the spring were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... cracks. Etched with nital. Original magnification: 55× The microstructure of the main fracture surface in unaffected base metal tended to be straight and transgranular, characteristic of cleavage fracture. In regions in which the fracture intersected a weld HAZ, the fracture path became irregular...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... nonbranched cracks have been observed along with branched cracks in structural steel exposed to contaminated agricultural ammonia ( Fig. 2 ). Fig. 2 Picral-etched specimen of structural steel that was exposed to contaminated agricultural ammonia showing nonbranched stress-corrosion cracks. 75...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the unetched and etched condition under a microscope. Microstructural features and conditions such as cracking and crack progression, pit morphology, selective leaching, surface features, and other characteristics can all be examined. These features provide key evidence regarding the cause of failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... showing heavy oxidation on crack surface (between arrows). (e) Section through crack showing thickness and uniformity of oxide coating. Etched with 2% nital. 1000× Corrective action was not deemed necessary, because the periodic scheduled inspection of the aircraft was considered adequate...