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alkaline etching

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... chemically milled section of the floor. An alkaline etch-type cleaner was used on the panels before chemical milling and before painting. Various tests and measurements indicated that the aluminum alloy used for the fuel-tank floors conformed to the specifications for 7178-T6. Low power magnification...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., chemistry, SEM, and metallurgical analyses. SEM imaging revealed microvoid coalescence within the fracture zone. The microvoids were flat and smooth edged indicating insufficient bonding. In addition, a cross sectional sample, mounted and etched using alkaline chromate, revealed an oxygen-rich zone...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... ( Fig. 2 ). During treatment with sodium hydroxide or alkaline sodium picrate solution the alloy zone was etched ( Figs. 3 ) and the metal completely dissolved. Fig. 1 Section through a sliver. 10× a). Etch: Nital. Section through a sliver. 10×. b). Etch: Sodium hydroxide 1:10. Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to the welded fin on the crown of the top tubes and located in an area near the upward bend of the tube. The inside of all the tubes were covered with a loosely adherent, black, alkaline, powdery deposit comprised mainly of magnetite. The corroded areas, however, had relatively less deposit. The morphology...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... Fig. 1 Etched with Fry-solution. 1 × Inner surface around rivet holes with cracks. Fig. 2 Etched with Fry-solution. 1 × Continuation of Fig. 1 at the right. Fig. 3 Etched with Fry-solution. 1 × Micrograph parallel to rivet seam in the zone of Fig. 2 . Fig. 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...) Same as (a) except for forward pin. (c) Top surface of forward pin showing slight bend at left end. (d) Micrograph showing pits in base metal under cracks in chromium plating. Etched with nital. 100×. (e) Electron fractograph showing corroded intergranular fracture surface at origin 1 on forward pin...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... testing is used to confirm the quality of the heat treatment and often reveals problems. Macrostructural examination, either by cold etching (more common) or hot etching, is very useful for detecting gross problems. Prior-austenite grain size is frequently evaluated by the Shepherd fracture grain size...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... − , corresponding to deposits ranging from 2 to 10 mg/cm (0.045 to 0.227 oz/in. 2 ) of NaCl, KCI, Na 2 SO 4 , and up to approximately 25%; the chlorides, 20 to 40%; K 2 SO 4 . The alkaline earth salts typically composed and alkali sulfates, the majority (by moles). Table 1 lists some analyses that illustrate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... cracked when mechanically worked. No unusual processing conditions during manufacture of the tube could he identified. To complicate matters, many of the process variables were changed during the height of the problem in an attempt to eliminate the tube embrittlement, including the alkaline dip, pickling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... environment and, for this purpose, 0.1M ferrous chloride was found to be particularly effective. Specimens exposed to this solution at 300°/400°C. showed an increase in weight in contrast to the reduction which occurred in alkaline solutions, and the black oxide film that was formed was of a much greater...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... alkalinity, ppm 100 Total hardness, ppm 140 Cycles, hardness 4.4 Turbidity, FAU 24.00 Total hardness, ppm 175 Cycles, silica 4.6 Two conditions when present together, create an environment for SCC in stainless steel. First, a tensile stress must be present. The tensile stress can...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... hardness is consistent with the carbon content and indicates a high susceptibility to cracking upon cooling or deformation. Fig. 5 Section through arc-gouged drain groove showing thin layer of dendritic structure containing cracks. Etched with nital. 55× The microstructure of the main...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (arrow) that nucleated fracture. 6×. (c) Etch pits in surface. 100× Parts such as the one shown in Fig. 17(a) were used as grease-wiper springs for cams. The springs were formed from stampings of 0.25-mm (0.010-in.) thick carbon spring steel (0.65 to 0.80% C) and were hardened to HR15N 84...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the failure specimens. Selection of the most informative cross-section locations is important. Metallurgical examination of a cross section requires mounting, surface grinding, polishing, and examining the sample in the unetched and etched condition under a microscope. Microstructural features and conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... along with branched cracks in structural steel exposed to contaminated agricultural ammonia ( Fig. 2 ). Fig. 2 Picral-etched specimen of structural steel that was exposed to contaminated agricultural ammonia showing nonbranched stress-corrosion cracks. 75× The surfaces of some stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are called metallurgical mounts and are prepared using standard metallographic techniques. Mounts are examined in the unetched and etched conditions. In the unetched condition, cracking and surface conditions, including intergranular attack, intergranular oxidation, depth of corrosion, inclusions, and so...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (arrows) about halfway through bolt-head diameter. (d) Section through bolt showing heavy oxidation on crack surface (between arrows). (e) Section through crack showing thickness and uniformity of oxide coating. Etched with 2% nital. 1000× Corrective action was not deemed necessary, because...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., mechanical polishing, and etching. Small specimens can be cut from a part on the site for preparation, examination, and photography immediately or upon return to a fully equipped laboratory. Photography is, of course, essential; it should be performed by the analyst or perhaps a professional photographer...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 1 2 ×. (b) Unetched section from location between arrows in (a) showing extensive transverse cracking adjacent to the main fracture (at right). Approximately 4 1 2 ×. (c) Specimen etched electrolytically in 60% HNO 3 (nitric acid) showing intergranular nature of cracking. 100...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Steels subject to combined high-temperature and high-pressure hydrogen. Also affects copper Irreversible chemical reactions of hydrogen with matrix or alloy elements form high-pressure pockets of gases other than molecular hydrogen. Cracking from hydride formation Transition, rare earth, alkaline...