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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A type 304 austenitic stainless steel tube (0.008 max C, 18.00 to 20.00 Cr, 2.00 max Mn, 8.00 to 10.50 Ni) was found to be corroded. The tube was part of a piping system, not yet placed in service, that was exposed to an outdoor marine environment containing chlorides. As part...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001713
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... The concentric pipes and shafts of the vacuum tube assembly enter the blender (lobe A) through the support tube visible in Figure 2 . On the outside of the blender, near the end of the vacuum tube assembly, there is a water cooled graphite seal that is part of the cooling system for the agitator shaft...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... expansion due to thermal gradients. These stresses increase with the thermal gradient and cause plastic deformation as the yield strength is exceeded. Volume changes due to transformational phase change. These volume changes are contained as residual stress systems until the yield strength is exceeded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in the as-received conditions and five (along with other one for microstructural analysis) were solution treated before testing. The heat treatment involved heating to 1050 °C, holding at 1050 °C for 1 h, and then quenching in agitated water at room temperature. Both the heat-treated and the as-received samples were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., delivered, and installed. The refurbished unit failed after operating for two weeks. Failure was due to perforation of the outer tubes approximately 28 cm up from the bottom tubesheet ( Fig. 4 ). Excessive metal loss caused penetration of the outer tube and allowed SO 2 to enter the feed water system...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... stainless steel wires in an electrostatic precipitator fractured in an unexpectedly short time. Applications The gas effluent from paper plants contains fine particles that are sometimes removed by an electrostatic precipitator. In this system, thin wires are charged to several thousand volts, so...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... reaction is referred to as couple action, and the electrically coupled system is known as a galvanic cell. The couple consists of an anode (which liberates electrons and corrodes typically by metal dissolution and/or metal oxide formation) and a cathode (which gains electrons and typically liberates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and connected by an electrolyte, a galvanic current flows between them because of the inherent electrical potential difference between the two. The resulting reaction is referred to as couple action, and the electrically coupled system is known as a galvanic cell. The dissimilar metals/materials couple consists...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... fractures or cracks may be erroneous because the residual stresses have already been relieved by the fracture and cracks. Testing of undamaged similar, or exemplar, parts is frequently used as the only alternative in order to understand the residual stress system in the failed part prior to failure. More...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as a matter of course. Impact tests, tensile tests, and other special mechanical tests may be performed if manufacturing procedures are in doubt or if other paths of investigation are not fruitful. Stress Systems Acting on Shafts The stress systems acting on a shaft must be clearly understood before...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., extended surface type, and regenerative), flow arrangement (e.g., single-pass counterflow), and heat-transfer mechanism (e.g., single- or two-phase convection, such as in condensers or boilers). Tubular heat exchangers are generally used for large fluid systems, whereas heat exchangers of plate or sheet...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... combustion gases, steam, or water to gases, vapors, or liquids of various types. Heat exchangers are of tube, plate, or sheet construction. Tubular heat exchangers are generally used for large fluid systems, whereas heat exchangers of plate or sheet construction are often preferred for smaller fluid streams...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... failures where embrittlement or other causes result in fracture under normal loading. The purpose of engineering failure analysis is to identify the root cause of component or system failure and to prevent similar occurrences. Underdesign is just one potential cause of an overload failure, and the time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... if manufacturing procedures are in doubt or if other paths of investigation are not fruitful. Stress Systems Acting on Shafts The stress systems acting on a shaft must be clearly understood before the cause of a fracture in that shaft can be determined. Also, both ductile and brittle behavior under static...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of manufactured devices. Manufacturers of FDA-regulated medical devices must establish and maintain a quality system that is appropriate for the specific medical device(s) and that meets the requirements of the quality system regulation set forth in Code of Federal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of circumstances. Intermittent operation can also affect the life of pressure vessels. Long periods of inactivity greatly enhance the probability of internal or external corrosion. During long shutdown periods, a common effective practice is to pressurize the system with nitrogen, to avoid corrosion. Wet lay...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... presumes underdesign as the cause of all overload failure, because it does not include failures in which embrittlement or other causes result in fracture under normal loading. The purpose of engineering failure analysis is to identify the root cause of component or system failure and to prevent similar...