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age hardening

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 39 A denuded zone in an age-hardened Al-Mg-Zn alloy. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046966
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... ductility due to age hardening, subsurface oxidation related to intragranular carbides, and high residual tensile macrostresses. No further conclusions could be drawn because of the lack of detailed service history, and no recommendations were made. Airfoils Carbides Precipitation Turbines Vanes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001346
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... fluctuations as well as restriction to movement. Fatigue cracks initiated intergranularly from both the flue gas and steam sides. Enhanced general and grain boundary oxidation coupled with age hardening of the alloy led to the formation of incipient intergranular cracks that acted as sites for the initiation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... by prior cold work. Available Materials and Post Fabrication Heat Treatments Alloys containing the age hardening elements (Al, Ti, Nb plus C) are susceptible to stress relation cracking when placed in service with the age hardening temperature range. The propensity to develop stress relaxation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... to be a major source of weakness. In one set of springs, failures frequently occurred at the base of the end hooks after a few hundred thousand load cycles. The springs, made from 0.02 in. (0.5 mm) diameter 17-7PH stainless steel wire, were age hardened at 900 F (482 C) for 1 h (CH900 condition) after...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... evidence of age-hardening having developed during the previous service to which the rail had been subjected. Flame-cutting of high and medium carbon steels is always liable to result in the formation of martensitic zones flanking the cut, especially in massive sections, unless the material is pre...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... for a Titan vehicle failed at Cape Kennedy ( Fig. 2 ). They were made of 17-4 PH in the H900 condition — a martensitic, age-hardening alloy. In the H900 condition (solution treated and aged 1 hr at 900 F), the material had nominal strengths of 180,000 psi yield and 200,000 psi tensile. The alloy's composition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... be subject to compression and abrasion, with resultant work-hardening. In consequence, the yield point and the ultimate tensile strength of the material comprising the affected layer would be raised and its ductility decreased. In the case of a material prone to strain-ageing, as in this instance, the effect...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... calculations for the affected components showed adequate safety margins well within regulation limits. This was confirmed by a nearly 30-year period of satisfactory service and component performance. The oleo cylinder forging was identified as an age-hardenable aluminum alloy (type 7014) of British origin...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ], as he indicates that “the tensile properties of the aluminum–zinc–magnesium alloys in the as-cast (F temper) condition change rapidly during the first few weeks of room temperature aging, because of natural precipitation hardening. Additional hardening continues thereafter at a progressively slower rate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... to bring about failure in a brittle manner, particularly if, as seems likely, shock loading conditions prevailed at the time of failure. In addition, the material was found to he susceptible to strain-age hardening and, therefore, probably strain-age embrittlement, and it is possible that its notch...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 21 (a) The correlation of particle spacing with dimple size. Data are from several aluminum alloys, as indicated. Ellipse size indicates scatter. Source: Ref 44 . (b) Change in dimple size and onset of intergranular cracking as a function of aging time for a precipitation-hardened titanium More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 16 Erosion rate of aluminum treated in different conditions (AQ: as-quenched; OA: over-aged; PH: peak-hardened; frequency = 20 kHz; distance between specimen and vibration horn = 1.25 mm; vibration amplitude = 40 μm; temperature = 15 °C; liquid: distilled water). Source: Ref 31 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... polymers but not on a macroscopic scale in a metallic material. With regard to fatigue, materials with poor ductility can still experience crack initiation and growth, because some slight plasticity may by present. Relatively brittle metals such as hardened steel and gray cast iron do not always form...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... ageing was a further factor in promoting brittleness, additional specimens were work-hardened on one sawn edge by hammer blows and others impressed with a notch formed by forcing into the specimen a 1 4 in. dia. hardened steel cylinder. Some were tested immediately afterwards and others after...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ductility can still experience crack initiation and growth since some slight plasticity may by present. Relatively brittle metals such as hardened steel and gray cast iron do not always form microscopically identifiable striations and macroscopic beach marks in cyclic failures. Transgranular Cleavage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001707
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... appeared to be immune to SCC when aged above 975°F (523°C). Conclusions The failures of two aircraft components, one from a landing gear and the other from an ejector rack mechanism, were investigated. Both were made from PH 13-8 Mo (UNS S13800) precipitation hardening stainless steel that was heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... impulse test. Both part types were made of 15-5 PH (UNS S15500) precipitation hardening stainless steel. Hydrogen embrittlement cracking was the likely cause of failure for both part types. Cracking of the as-fabricated parts was ultimately prevented by changing the manufacturing procedure to allow...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... the open end. The motor case, now in its finished form, is aged at 900 F for three hours in a steam environment and slow cooled. The case is removed from such environment at a temperature of approximately 500 F and air cooled to room temperature. The purpose of steam aging is to provide a “black oxide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and material factors that cause a part to fail during heat treatment. The article discusses the problems associated with heating and furnaces, quenching media, quenching stresses, hardenability, tempering, carburizing, carbonitriding, and nitriding as well as potential stainless steel problems and problems...