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advanced high-strength steels

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... fracture ( Fig. 3 ), which is seen in some advanced high-strength steels. Whereas splits form along a sidewall of a stamped part, shear fracture occurs along the radius. Shear fracture occurs at lower stress levels than predicted when analyzing for splits. Shear fracture cannot be predicted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and the stable 310 alloy exhibits ductile fractures, when tested in hydrogen gas environmental cells ( Ref 32 ). Hydrogen embrittlement of high-strength steels is typically characterized by IG fractures; however, transgranular fracture has been noted to occur in some advanced high-strength steels ( Ref 33...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and Cyclic IG Processes Cyclic microvoid and cyclic IG processes ( Ref 13 ) have also been observed. The former is shown in Fig. 6 for an ultrahigh-strength D6AC steel tested at a stress-intensity factor range (Δ K ) greater than 60 MPa m (54.6 ksi in. ). The crack advance per cycle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0089572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... or as the result of a high load, such as those that caused earlier crack advances. Examination of the fracture surface of the second beam showed that only two increments of crack propagation occurred before final fracture and that there was no fatigue cracking. Failure in the second beam occurred after far...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
..., January, 1964; and, “Stress Corrosion Cracking in High Strength Steel—or Hydrogen Embrittlement?”, by I. Weibull, Second International Conference on Advances in the Aeronautical Sciences, Zurich, 1960. Experience with landing gear components and the investigation of service failures have shown...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and may, in extreme cases, change the controlling process and growth mechanism. In one case, the fatigue-crack-growth rate for a small crack in a high-strength (4130) steel in a 3% sodium chloride solution was about ten times faster than that of long cracks at similar stress-intensity levels in the same...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Most common in Comments Hydrogen embrittlement High-strength steels and heavily cold-worked low-carbon steels, ambient temperatures Needs sustained stress. Not relevant for impact-induced cracking Hydrogen-induced blistering Low-strength steels at ambient temperatures Hydrogen forms gas...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Hydrogen attack Cracking from hydride formation Specific types of hydrogen damage Table 1 Specific types of hydrogen damage Specific damage process/mechanism Most common in Comments Hydrogen embrittlement High-strength steels and heavily cold-worked low-carbon steels, ambient...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... beach marks is typically due to changes in loading or environmental factors. In the SEM at sufficiently high magnification, fatigue striations can be detected in many materials but not all ( Fig. 8 ). In hardened steel or high-strength steels—very common materials—striations may often be difficult...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... , 2 , 3 ) that grain size is the main factor controlling the strength and toughness of a ferrite- pearlite steel. In order to control the grain size during processing, one must both control the temperature during the final stages of rolling and perform post roll heat treating to cause...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001691
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Never leave stagnant water in a system that is susceptible to corrosion; drain and dry the system if the water is not flowing. High-strength aluminum alloys depend on precipitated phases for strengthening and are susceptible to intergranular corrosion and pitting. Duraluminum-type alloys (Al-Cu...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... to sinusoidal load fluctuations at 6.7 Hz in air, 3% NaCl solution, and natural sea water are described. Reinforcement types studied included: hot-rolled mild steel bar, hot-rolled alloyed high strength bar, cold-worked high strength bar, galvanized bar of all these three types, nickel-clad bar and epoxy-coated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., the fatigue crack-growth rate for a small crack in a high-strength steel (4130) in a 3% sodium chloride solution is approximately ten times faster than that of long cracks at similar stress-intensity levels in the same bulk environment, although the short-crack fatigue data obtained in air do coincide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... as notches. Most vibrational fractures start from such sites of stress concentration. The higher the strength of a steel, the higher is its “notch sensitivity” ( Fig. 9 ). The advantage of a high strength can be neutralized, or turned to a disadvantage, by inappropriate design or bad working. Fig. 9...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of high strength SAE 4130 steel tubes. The major defects observed are fish scaling, premature burst, diametral growth, microcracks, and macrocracks. This paper analyzes the defects and arrives at the causative factors contributing to the various failure modes. Expert system Inclusions Metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... for Metals , 1975 10.2355/tetsutohagane1955.61.14_2998 3. DeArdo A.J. , Hamburg E.G. , Influence of elongated inclusions on the mechanical properties of high strength steel plate , in Sulfide Inclusions in Steel: Proceedings of an International Symposium , American Society for Metals...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... stress. It is well known that steel with plastic deformation of about 5 % at a temperature between 200 and 300°C shows so much deteriorated mechanical property and the possibility of generation of the fracture becomes relatively high at low stress. Such ductility deterioration is generally called “hot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... defect of 23CrNi3Mo drill steel ”, Chongqing , China during January 21–23 , 2011 . Adv. Mater. Res. 314 – 316 , 1955 – 1999 (2011) 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.314-316.1955 15. Tomita Y. , Okabayashi K. , Mechanical properties of 0.40 pct C–Ni–Cr–Mo high strength steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... was exposed to high temperatures when the liner cracked and subsequently bulged out due to creep. refractory-lined pipe creep deformation overheating carbon steel voids scale grain boundary oxidation grain coarsening microstructural examination strength P265GH (nonresulfurized carbon steel...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... strength. Prevention of creep-induced fracture thus involves the consideration of both material strength and damage tolerance, much as in static design. The chromium-molybdenum steels, stainless steels, and Cr-Mo-V steels, which are commonly used in high-temperature service, are considered to be creep...