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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...Abstract Abstract The cross bars of conveyor belt links that served to transport glass containers through a stress relief furnace fractured in many cases. They consisted of wires of 5 mm diam made of low-carbon Siemens-Martin steel, while the interwoven longitudinal bars were made of strip...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... , Ed., ASTM , 1984 , p 5 – 103 3. Fréchette V.D. , Failure Analysis of Brittle Materials , Vol 28 , Advances in Ceramics , The American Ceramic Society , 1990 4. Fréchette V.D. , Fractology of Glass , Introduction to Glass Science , Pye L.D. , Stevens H...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of quartz and glass-filled polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slid against SiC, SiO 2 , and CaCO 3 abrasives as a function of filler volume fraction. The performance clearly depends on the ratio of hardness of the abrasives to the filler, the interfacial adhesion of the filler with the matrix PMMA, and volume...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for tribological applications. Figure 2 shows micrographs of oriented PTFE molecules deposited on the counterface after wear. Fig. 2 Micrographs of oriented PTFE films on the counterface. (a) PTFE transfer film on a glass slide. The film thickness varies between 50 and 500 nm, and sometimes it can show...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... psig), 600 °C (1110 °F) and above >42 Advanced ultrasupercritical 27.8–34.5 MPa (4000–5000 psig), 700–760 °C (1300–1400 °F) >45 Source: Ref 34 Nominal composition of alloys tested in molten chlorides at 650 and 700 °C (1200 and 1290 °F) under nitrogen Table 3 Nominal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... pressure levels) but must be used with caution. Glass strength is not as consistent as steel; therefore, a single window does not provide the same level of confidence as a metal panel or steel component. Generally, glass strength is based on a probability of breakage. Typical design strength for common...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... in disk drives consists of a metal, glass, ceramic, or plastic substrate coated with a magnetic material. Data errors are classified as ‘soft’ or ‘hard’ depending on their correctability. Examination has shown that hard errors are the result of an abrasive wear process that begins with contact between...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001901
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... melted away. Recognizing the translucent qualities of acetal polymers, and knowing that they have been favored in applications such as carburetors, floats, pump housings, and gears, the hypothesis was advanced that the part might be made from a polyoxymethylene (POM) that was depolymerizing during...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... generation industries. The most common cause of premature failures of refractories is corrosion. However, corrosion is infrequently the cause of premature failure for technical ceramics. Corrosion of refractories occurs mainly when refractory materials are in contact with metallurgical slags or glasses...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are concerned only with the steady state. Fig. 1 Effect of impact angle on erosion of aluminum and glass by 300 μm iron spheres at 10 m/s (34 ft/s) Fig. 2 Characteristic volume-loss rate versus time curves. (a) Type I. (b) Type II. (c) Type III. (d) Type IV The erosion of materials has...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... temperature. Note the appearance of river lines on the faces of the cleavage surfaces. (b) Fracture of a soda-lime glass. Note similarity of river lines to those of (a). (c) Intergranular stress-corrosion cracking in brass. The grain structure is clearly revealed as the material fails along the grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Newbury D. , Joy D. , Echlin P. , Fiori C. , and Goldstein J. , Advanced Scanning Electron Microscopy , Plenum Press , New York , 1986 10.1007/978-1-4757-9027-6 5. Adams B.L. , Wright S.I. , and Kunze K. , Orientation Imaging: The Emergence of a New...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... examination of the fracture surface today (variable pressure SEM for polymeric materials). Optical light fractography is still used today for examination of glasses, but the common tool of choice for metallic materials is the SEM, in part because of the increased depth of field and higher magnification...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the ring and cone fracture is provided by the Hertz theory of elastic contact. Traditionally, Hertzian cone cracks have been most widely studied in flat, silicate glass plate, using spheres of hard steel or tungsten carbide. Extension to ceramics is becoming more prevalent, and the theory of Hertzian...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-dispersive x-ray spectra of a multicomponent glass. Source: Ref 5 The detection limits of EPMA using a wavelength-dispersive spectrometer are on the order of 0.01 wt%, an order of magnitude greater than is obtained using an energy-dispersive spectrometer. Auger Electron Spectroscopy In AES...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for metallographic examination. Fig. 22 (a) Energy-dispersive and (b) wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectra of a multicomponent glass. Source: Ref 6 Fig. 23 Basic elements of polymeric materials. (See Table 1 for explanation of locations). Source: Ref 7 Fig. 20 Pitting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... that are less complex than a large-scale accident. The approach presented is that the analysis and reconstruction is based on the physical evidence. The article provides a brief review of some general concepts on the use and limitations of advanced data acquisition tools and computer modeling. Legal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to the axle surface. However, as the crack front nears the back surface, it bends over to follow a tensile stress path. Figure 4 shows the matching journal half of the axle fracture. Figure 6 shows this same crack path in a glass rod fracture. Fig. 6 Fracture in a glass rod demonstrates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... (a) Brittle behavior. (b) Limited ductility behavior. (c) Cold drawing behavior. (d) Rubbery behavior. Curve (a) could represent testing below the glass transition temperature. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 20 Craze formation in a polycarbonate polymer in tension under alcohol. Source: Ref 13 Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... electronic circuitry in the 1940s created the foundation for many of the pulse-echo ultrasonic instruments in use today. Advances in instrumentation have provided the opportunity to gain more information about flaws and material properties, for example, by the formation of higher resolution images...