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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001704
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... is a complex phenomenon in which the activities of microorganisms can cause pitting, crevice corrosion, and dealloying of materials. MIC has been documented for metals exposed to seawater, fresh water, demineralized water, process chemicals, etc. [ 1 ]. The phenomenon commonly occurs in austenitic stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... for the measurement of interfacial layer thickness Contrast at interfacial layer due to differences in the refractive index ( n ). n is usually predicted as the average of two phases; this method does not work if n is similar for both phases. Blend: styrene acrylonitrile (SAN)/polyamide (PA) Compatibilizer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... performance. Fig. 4 Schematic of minimum viewing angle and maximum distance for visual inspection in accordance with BS EN ISO 9241-5:1999 Another important element encountered during visual inspection is the brightness contrast of a given object, which is dependent on its reflection factor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... in the carbide phase. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of carbides were carried out by using JEOL proprietary “QLAN” and “PACM” application software, respectively, under 15 kV accelerating voltage and 5 × 10 −8 A probe current. 3. Results and Discussion 3.1 Roll Particulars The ICDP work rolls...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... , Springer , 2008 , p 42 – 44 , 94–99, 130–234 4. Michler G.H. , Electron Microscopy of Polymers , Springer , 2008 , p 87 – 129 5. Pawley J.B. , LVSEM for Biology , Biological Low Voltage Scanning Electron Microscopy , Schatten H. and Pawley J. , Ed., Springer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... when the polymer absorbs water at ambient conditions. Added antistatic agents decrease surface resistivity because the polar additives migrate to the surface of the polymer and absorb humidity. In contrast, conductive fillers, such as carbon black powders and aluminum flake, can form three-dimensional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to the material discontinuities. Acquiring the C-scan in digital form makes image processing possible. Gray-scale modification and contrast enhancement are simple to implement and may eliminate the need to rescan materials to obtain satisfactory results. Portions of the scan can be enlarged as necessary...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that reacts with the rust to produce an oxide that makes the surface passive and seals the surface from water and other solutions. In contrast to the active surfaces formed typically on steels, some metals form dense insulated tightly adherent passive films from uniform-corrosion processes with the metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a phosphoric-acid-based compound that reacts with the rust to produce an oxide that makes the surface passive and seals the surface from water and other solutions. In contrast to the active surfaces formed typically on steels, some metals form dense, insulated, tightly adherent passive films from uniform...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... be unacceptable to a standard. In contrast, a flaw refers to an undesirable imperfection, although its specific effect may not be determined. For specific and technical interpretations of these terms (and others such as discontinuity or indication ), the reader is referred to applicable standards, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... In contrast, a large amount of energy is absorbed in a ductile fracture, in which the plastic deformation takes place over a much larger volume of material. Certain polymers that normally deform in a ductile manner in the standard tension test frequently sustain brittle fractures when a sharp notch...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of 30, 43, 95, and 190 J (22, 32, 70 and 140 ft · lbf), were used for the spalling tests. Fig. 1 Hammer-testing device used by McIntire and Manning. Source: Ref 3 Joseph W. Lodge, who, at one time, was the chief research engineer for Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company, was actively...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Factors include: Weight Activity level Age Overall health Diet Tobacco/drugs or alcohol use Adherence to doctors’ orders Quality of bone stock Therefore, a review of the specific patient factors is critical for a full understanding of what may have precipitated a failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... fixturing would be of interest along with examination of successfully formed wire stock. Brittle Overload Failures Brittle overload failures, in contrast to ductile overload failures, are characterized by little or no macroscopic plastic deformation. The fracture features and mechanisms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) gross slip displacement amplitudes; (TiC/alumina) sphere-on-flat contact. Adapted from Ref 59 . Reprinted with permission from Elsevier However, for a metallic interface, plastic transformation is activated within the interface before wear debris is even generated. This promotes a plastic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of the controlled parameters may include heat input, current, voltage, pressure, preheat temperature, and so on. Once a weld has been made in production according to a procedure, then it requires a final quality evaluation to determine if it meets the targeted acceptance criteria. Construction codes clearly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the forming limit. The results suggested that the forming process should be examined; in particular, lubrication and workpiece fixturing would be of interest, together with examination of successfully formed wire stock. Brittle Overload Failures Brittle overload failures, in contrast to ductile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to millimeters. The morphology and topography of the fracture surface are generally dictated by the material microstructure and active failure mechanisms. Therefore, quantitative characterization of the fracture surface geometry, that is, quantitative fractography, can provide useful information regarding...