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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001901
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... premature failure of the part. POM should not be selected for automotive applications where elevated temperatures and acidic environments can exist. If exposure to acid is suspected, sodium bicarbonate should be applied to neutralize the surrounding environment, followed by copious quantities of water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... , and 0.5% Cr 2 O 3 . Attack of the steel by the alkali acid sulfate, which has a low melting point, thinned the tube wall and produced the red deposit. This type of corrosion is known to be severe on chromium-molybdenum steel at temperatures of about 595 to 705 °C (1100 to 1300 °F). Where the tube surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... to extended shutdown periods at ambient temperatures. The corrosive environment contained trace hydrogen chloride and acetic acid vapors as well as calcium chloride if leaks occurred. The exact service life was unknown. The bolt surfaces showed extensive corrosion deposits. Cracks had initiated at both...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... etched with oxalic acid) supported the conclusion that the clamp fractured by SCC because the work metal was sensitized. Sensitization occurred during long-term exposure to the service temperature; the effects of sensitization were intensified as a result of cold forming. Recommendations included using...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... been in use in a chemical plant handling mixtures of organic liquids and dilute sulphuric acid having a pH value of 2–4 at temperatures of 80–90°C. It worked for approximately 20 minutes every two hours and failure occurred after some 1,200 hours service life. Intergranular attack in austenitic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... was thus due to stress-corrosion cracking and additional corrosion due to ventilation elements. Because austenitic chromium nickel steels are prone to stress-corrosion cracking, particularly in the presence of chlorine compounds at high temperatures, and because austenitic rust- and acid-resistant steels...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract Over a period of about one year, three RA 330 alloy salt pots from a single heat-treating plant were submitted to failure analysis. All of the pots, which had 9.5 mm thick walls, were used primarily to contain neutral salts at temperatures from about 815 to 900 deg C (1500...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the interaction with gamma radiation) and to prevent corrosion. A number of failures have occurred over the years because of a loss of the He cover gas in the assembly. This has resulted in either acid attack on the Inconel 600 sheath in a wet environment or gaseous corrosion in a dry environment. In the latter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... to its inlet. This helps maintain the CT exhaust gas temperature flowing over the harps and maintains temperatures above the acid dewpoint temperature. The addition of a recirculation system causes a minor reduction in overall plant performance when the recirculation system is in service. Standard...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the borderline passivity of type 316L in hot dilute sulfuric acid (about 0.1%). Inaccuracy of the testing was attributed to the presence of cupric ions in the lead-lined vessel fluids, which had been released by corrosion of the copper coils. Careful control of both temperature and pH was recommended to reduce...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-Temperature Corrosion-Related Failures.” The rate, extent, and type of corrosive attack that can be tolerated in an object vary widely, depending on the specific application and initial design. Whether the observed corrosion behavior was normal for the metal used in the given service conditions helps...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Corrosion Failures ,” and “ High-Temperature Corrosion-Related Failures .” Additional discussion can be found in the articles “ Effect of Environment on the Performance of Plastics ” and “ Corrosion Failures of Industrial Refractories and Technical Ceramics ” in Failure Analysis and Prevention , Volume 11...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... will remove some light surface deposits. Deposits that have been exposed to elevated temperatures will generally require a more aggressive approach. Inhibited dilute acid solutions and citric acid cleaners can be used to clean adherent corrosion deposits. In cases where the protection of the fracture features...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001705
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... by the nitric acid. The steel had been sensitized by prolonged exposure to temperatures in its sensitization range: 800–1600°F. It was determined that, based on the excellent history of AISI 316 in this service, the replacement coils could be constructed of the same material, [ 1 ]. In January 1987 the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001689
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... and the remaining part attached to the pump. High temperature was thus a result, not the cause, of the failure. Duplex stainless steel Fatigue fracture Failure had occurred in the shaft of a centrifugal pump at the input (drive) side after some five months of operation. The shaft broke at a packing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
....) gate valve body. Prior to failure, the valve had been operated for approximately 10 years within the temperature and pressure rating specifications provided by the manufacturer. The working medium had been oleum and sulfuric acid. At the time of failure, the wall thickness of the valve body...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the components, the role of corrosion species in promoting SCC assumes significance. In aggressive environment and at elevated temperature, SCC in stainless steels can occur if corrosion species such as chlorides, caustic, sulfides, and polythionic acids are present in the environment in sufficient quantities...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... only be concluded from the investigation that the temperature did not exceed the Ac3 point of the wire material, which should be about 750 deg C, and that the heating lasted a fairly long time. Cables Cracking (fracturing) Galvanized steels Overheating Wire Cold-drawn steel (Other, general...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and the application of preventive measures. The fundamentals of corrosion are described in more detail in Ref 2 . However, as a brief introduction, the electrochemical nature of corrosion can be illustrated by the attack on zinc by hydrochloric acid (HCl). When zinc is placed in dilute hydrochloric acid, a vigorous...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to the primary stress direction. Cuboidal precipitates (darker phase) is γ ′ . Matrix is the lighter γ phase. Etchant: 33% glycerol, 33% nitric acid, 33% acetic acid, and 1–3% hydrofluoric acid Prolonged exposure to elevated temperature in the hot section of gas turbine engines can lead...