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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of a sectioned and oxalic acid etched sample. The grain size was found to exceed the ASTM standard. No indications of sensitization were observed during testing with practice A of ASTM A 262. Definitive evidence of contaminants to support SCC as the failure mechanism was not disclosed during analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... to an expensive gear mechanism. The rotor was subjected to severe chatter, which was an abnormal condition resulting from a series of continuous small overloads occurring at a frequency of around three per second. Investigation (visual inspection, hardness testing, and hot acid etch images) supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... by acid etching. Post-plating baking operations subsequently reduced the fatigue strength of the spar. Selected References Selected References • Fatigue Failures , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 700 – 727 10.31399/asm.hb.v11...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A 1-in. diam pump spindle fractured within the length covered by the boss of the impeller which was attached to the spindle by means of an axial screw. The pump had been in use in a chemical plant handling mixtures of organic liquids and dilute sulfuric acid having a pH value of 2 to 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0091048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... with Vilella's reagent followed by electrolytic etching in 10% oxalic acid) supported the conclusion that the heat exchanger cracked due to weld cold cracking or postwelding brittle overload that occurred via flexure during fabrication. The brittle nature of the weld was likely due to a combination of high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... during investigation. Etch pits were revealed by the cleaned surface which were never observed on properly phosphated coating. It was interpreted that the spring had been subjected to an abnormal acid attack in pickling or phosphating which had resulted in considerable absorption of hydrogen by the metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... and measured 1.5 m (58 in.) in diameter and 8.5 m (28 ft) in length. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, radiography, dye-penetrant inspection, and hydrostatic testing of all E-Brite welds, 4x images, 100x/200x images electrolytically etched with 10% oxalic acid, and V-notch Charpy testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001689
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... at low and higher magnification. Etched in HCl saturated with picric acid. In (b) the globular austenite is seen in a ferrite matrix. Fig. 4 Microstructure of the shaft 10 mm from the fracture surface. Etch: HCl saturated with picric acid. Figures 5 and 6 show the section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., as-polished specimens were also concurrently examined under SEM at higher magnifications to garner more details about the defect. Metallographic specimens were eventually electrolytically etched in 10% oxalic acid solution at 6 V DC for 30 s. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were conjunctively...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0046969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
..., 2.7x micrographic examination on sections etched with ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid in methanol) supported the conclusions that the blades failed by hot-corrosion attack. Variation in rate of attack on coated blades was attributed to variation in integrity of the aluminide coating, which had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... sulfur, mainly from the flue gas, and calcium and chlorine, mainly from the sea water. The gray corrosion product was interspersed with rust and a black carbonaceous deposit. Corrosion pitting and poor weld penetration, with carbide precipitation and heavy etching at grain boundaries, indicated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... was covered with fine branching cracks and was flaking off. Microscopic examination showed that the unetched polished material had disintegrated to an average depth of 1 mm below the surface. A micrograph of the etched surface revealed numerous deformation lines and transgranular cracking. The failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract The interior of a cylindrical tank used for the road transport of concentrated sulfuric acid revealed severe blistering of the plates, mainly over the crown and more particularly on the first ring. The tank, made in 1958, was of welded construction, the material being mild...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... the keyways. A roll manufacturer had successfully used the above procedure for many years to make them. Analysis (visual inspection; 150x micrograph of sections etched with a mixture of 2 parts HNO3, 2 parts acetic acid, and 3 parts HCI; electron microscopy; and stress testing) supported the conclusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract During a routine shear-pin check, the end lug on the barrel of the forward canopy actuator on a naval aircraft was found to have fractured. The lug was forged from aluminum alloy 2014-T6. Investigation (visual inspection, 2x views, and 140X micrographs etched with Keller's...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... disrupted and transverse grain flow, which was verified by deep etching in aqueous 20% sodium hydroxide. Grain flow at the crack plane changed abruptly from longitudinal to transverse, similar to the pattern shown in Fig. 1(c) . The surface showed definite chromic acid stains and evidence of rapid fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... etched with oxalic acid) supported the conclusion that the clamp fractured by SCC because the work metal was sensitized. Sensitization occurred during long-term exposure to the service temperature; the effects of sensitization were intensified as a result of cold forming. Recommendations included using...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046966
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... method. Analysis (visual inspection, 100x/500x metallographic examination of sections etched with a mixture of ferric chloride, hydrochloric acid, and methanol, and bend tests) supported the conclusions that cracking of the airfoil sections was caused by thermal fatigue and was contributed to by low...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., and 10x etched with 2% chromic acid plus HCl views) supported the conclusions that failure was by fatigue from multiple origins caused by welding defects. Ultimate failure was by tensile overload of the sections partly separated by the fatigue cracks. Recommendations included correct fit-up of the case...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the piece. Investigation (visual inspection, on-site radiographic inspection, limited ultrasonic inspection, chemical analysis, 53x metallographic cross sections and SEM images etched in 8:1 phosphoric acid) supported the conclusion that the cracking mechanism was intergranular SCC. No recommendations were...