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acid corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract An E-Brite /Ferralium explosively bonded tube sheet in a nitric acid condenser was removed from service because of corrosion. Visual and metallographic examination of tube sheet samples revealed severe cracking in the heat-affected zone between the outer tubes and the weld joining...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... been exposed to the process stream was discolored. Failure of the spool was attributed to stress-corrosion cracking promoted by the presence of nitrates. Nitric acid contaminant in the sulfuric acid stream had diffused through the liner and accumulated in the annular space. Use of a liner that is more...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 13 Effect of acid concentration on the corrosion rate of iron completely immersed in aqueous solutions of three inorganic acids at room temperature. It should be noted that the scales for corrosion rate are not the same for all three charts. As discussed in text, the corrosion rate More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 13 Effect of acid concentration on the corrosion rate of iron completely immersed in aqueous solutions of three inorganic acids at room temperature. It should be noted that the scales for corrosion rate are not the same for all three charts. As discussed in the text, the corrosion rate More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the borderline passivity of type 316L in hot dilute sulfuric acid (about 0.1%). Inaccuracy of the testing was attributed to the presence of cupric ions in the lead-lined vessel fluids, which had been released by corrosion of the copper coils. Careful control of both temperature and pH was recommended to reduce...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... to a significant extent by concentrated sulphuric acid, but if dilution occurs, then corrosion does take place. Pre-supposing that dilution had occurred some time during the service life of the tank—and this could easily be brought about by the condensation of water vapour on a surface wetted with concentrated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of its resistance to chloride and sulfuric acid dewpoint corrosion under conditions potentially present in the HRSG low-pressure feedwater economizer. Intergranular corrosion and cracking were found in the weld metal and heat-affected zones. The hardness in these regions was up to 35 HRC, and the weld...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001386
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the hole. The balance of the fracture surface was typical of a brittle fracture ( Fig. 5 and 6 ). Fig. 5 Fracture surfaces of load cell, indicating brittle fracture Fig. 6 Fracture origin (top left corner) and fatigue region after cleaning in inhibited acid Corrosion Patterns...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in the base metal immediately adjacent to the weld seam. The corrosion was attributed to exposure to nitric acid cleaning solution and was accelerated by galvanic differences between the tubes and a stainless steel tube sheet and between the base metal of the tubes and their dendritic weld seams. A change...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... segregation in the original plate served as preferential corrosion sites. Had the tanks been hydrostatically tested in a proper manner, the pitting may not have occurred. Corrosion environments Nitric acid Sewage Solvents Storage tanks 304L UNS S30403 Pitting corrosion Biological corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are described in more detail in Corrosion , Volume 13 of the ASM Handbook. However, as a brief introduction, the electrochemical nature of corrosion can be illustrated by the attack on zinc by hydrochloric acid. When zinc is placed in dilute hydrochloric acid, a vigorous reaction occurs; hydrogen gas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... Recommendations included replaced the material with type 304L stainless steel. Crater corrosion Heat exchanger tubes Nitric acid Welded joints 347 UNS S34700 Crevice corrosion Beveled weld-joint V-sections were fabricated to connect inlet and outlet sections of tubes in a type 347 stainless steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... is typically between C95200 and C95900. Because of the high aluminum content, NAB alloys generally have very high corrosion resistance in seawater, chlorides, and dilute acids. Additional corrosion resistance is obtained with the use of nickel, which also increases the alloy’s yield strength. The addition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... sensitization and susceptibility to aqueous intergranular corrosion. Chemical analysis showed the predominant acid radical to be sulfate (6.20% in the carbonaceous deposit and 0.60% in the corrosion product), suggesting that oxidation of SO2 in the flue gas caused the corrosion. Moisture condensation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... 68,8 mg/I Freie Kohlensäure/free carbonic acid 5,5 mg/I Chlorid/Chloride 99,4 mg/I Sulfat/sulfate 378,5 mg/I Eisen/iron 2,7 mg/I Sulfid/sulfide Spuren/traces Fig. 1 Section through pump impeller. Graphitic corrosion designated by darker edges. 1 × The impeller...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... stresses. The narrow gap between vessel and mild steel casing may have aggravated the situation in that it hindered ventilation and evaporation of condensation and favored the absorption and concentration of acids and salts. Contact and crevice corrosion due to deposition of rust from the mild steel casing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract A forged aluminum alloy 2014-T6 catapult-hook attachment fitting (anodized by the chromic acid process to protect it from corrosion) from a naval aircraft broke in service. Spectrographic analysis, visual examination, microscopic examination, and tensile analysis showed minute cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... is typical of pipe, neither very rough nor smooth. The relative surface area of the cathode to anode is large because of the expanse of the pipe involved. Corrosion by pitting starts, the dense acid puddles by gravity over a relatively wide area, and the remainder of the pipe section acts as a cathode...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... stresses would be greatest. The compressor intake was situated in the vicinity of nitric acid pumps which had a history of leakage troubles, and which had evidently given rise to the nitrates found on the impeller. Air compressors Chlorides Corrosion environments Impellers Nitric acid Pumps Fe...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... surfaces in contact with the sufficiently acidic beverage. The exposed sulfide stringers, which were anodic to the surrounding metal, were thus subject to corrosion to produce a hydrogen sulfide concentration in the immediately adjacent liquid, thus making at least the first cup of beverage dispensed...