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abnormal graphite morphology

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ( Fig. 1a , b ). Parabolic or elongated shear dimples occur from torsional loading ( Fig. 1c ) or from mode II (in-plane) shear. However, metallic materials can behave in a ductile manner but not exhibit the classical dimple-rupture morphology, as shown in Fig. 1(d) for a cast aluminum alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... manner, but not exhibit the classical dimple-rupture morphology, as shown in Fig. 1(d) for a cast aluminum alloy. The cast aluminum alloy fracture surface should show dimples in the aluminum matrix (original dendrites), but can be difficult to see because fracture surface morphology is impacted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., unconsolidated interiors, and carbide segregation and poor carbide morphology are reviewed with illustrations. brittle fracture carbide segregation die failure dies electrical discharge machining failure mechanisms finish grinding heat treatment hot working laps machining mechanical testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...) Microstructural examination revealed a badly overaustenitized condition with a heavy grain-boundary carbide film, coarse plate martensite, and unstable retained austenite. Etched with 3% nital. Original magnification: 490× Fig. 18 AISI O6 graphitic tool steel punch machined from centerless-ground bar...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... effects can cause metallurgical changes that alter the mechanical and corrosion properties of materials. Graphitization is a microstructural change that can occur in carbon and low-alloy steels. Pearlite (alternating ferrite and Fe 3 C platelet structure) normally found in such steels transforms in time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and in the matrix of the metals. The subsequent paragraphs delineate some examples. Machinability varies with hardness, deformability, number, size, morphology, and distribution of nonmetallic inclusions in steel due to their effects on the chip-formation process, as influenced by calcium and sulfur treatments...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 153. Luthra K.L. , Low Temperature Hot Corrosion of Cobalt-Base Alloys, Part I: Morphology of the Reaction Product , Metall. Trans. A , Vol 13 , 1982 , p 1843 – 1852 10.1007/BF02647841 154. Shores D.A. and Luthra K. , Na 2 SO 4 Induced Corrosion of Ni- and Co-Base...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... dealuminification denickelification desiliconification dezincification galvanic corrosion graphitic corrosion intergranular corrosion pitting corrosion selective leaching uniform corrosion velocity-affected corrosion CORROSION is the electrochemical reaction of a material and its environment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... recognized is the influence of nonmetallic conductors as cathodes in galvanic couples. Carbon brick in vessels is strongly cathodic to the common structural metals and alloys. Impervious graphite, especially in heat-exchanger applications, is cathodic to the less noble metals and alloys. Carbon-filled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... 7.4 17.3 9.6 −18 to 650 0–1200 13.8 7.7 17.8 9.9 Fig. 20 Graphitized microstructure of SA210 grade A1 plain carbon steel. Original magnification: 400× Fig. 15 Scanning electron micrograph of failed tube at rupture lip showing dimples. Original magnification: 1000...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (hundreds of degrees above normal), to the point where deformation or yielding occurs. Overheating results from abnormal conditions such as loss of coolant flow and excessive temperature excursion. In general, short-term overheating failures involve considerable deformation in the form of metal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the failure analyst. In collecting service histories, special attention should be given to environmental details such as normal and abnormal loading, accidental overloads, cyclic loads, temperature variations, temperature gradients, and operation in a corrosive environment. In most instances, however...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the health of machineries. Using analytical ferrography, one can diagnose the type of wear that occurred in the machine components by morphology analysis of the particles ( Ref 4 ), the type of materials present in the wear debris, and the maximum temperature reached by sliding surfaces from the colors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Source: Ref 15 Fig. 37 Failure of a tube. (a) Pits. (b) Longitudinal crack. Source: Ref 15 Fig. 38 Morphology of propagating cracks. (a) Transgranular cracks. (b) Intergranular cracks. (c) Overall appearance of propagating cracks. Source: Ref 15 Fig. 39 Morphology...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... , Silveira T.F. da , and Cunha Furtado H. , Graphitization in Low Alloy Steel Pressure Vessels and Piping , J. Fail. Anal. Prevent. , Vol 11 , 2011 , p 3 – 9 10.1007/s11668-010-9414-z 76. Foulds J.R. and Viswanathan R. , “ Graphitization of Steels in Elevated-Temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and MVC, and that fracture of the shear lip regions occurred by MVC. Close examination of the morphology of the dimples on the shear lip shows that they are elongated rather than being equiaxed, and that if dimples are present in the flat region, they can also be elongated or equiaxed. These cases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fracture area can occur by either or both cleavage and MVC, and that fracture of the shear lip regions occurred by MVC. Close examination of the morphology of the dimples on the shear lip shows that they are elongated rather than being equiaxed, and that if dimples are present in the flat region, they can...