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X-ray radiography

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 X-ray radiography film of J-2 joint. The picture shows several pits (black circle) around the welding protrusion (one white band among two dark bands) More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... no cracks were found when the welds were visually inspected, X-ray radiography showed small discontinuous surface cracks adjacent to the weld bead in the heat affected zone. Further investigation, including optical microscopy, microhardness testing, and residual stress measurements, revealed that the cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of a carburising processes. Metal dusting attacks the inner surface of HyL III radiation heat exchanger pipes in generating crater-like pits. Thickness of the pipes is generally reduced very much, very quickly. X-ray radiography can be used to identify the pits by showing black spots in the film. In order...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... stress applied to magnetic material Online monitoring of magnetic material Not suitable for nonmagnetic material Online monitoring; can sense stress without cracking Magnetic metals, steel, nickel, iron, chrome Radiography, computed tomography, digital x-ray, neutron radiographic testing, x-ray...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the axes. SEM examination revealed the presence of longitudinally oriented nonmetallic inclusions that were partly retained and partly dislodged. Electron-dispersive x-ray analysis indicated that the inclusions were composed of CaO. Based on the overall chemistry of the inclusion sites, the source...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... and 54 C is a required test for these components which are made at Mound for various weapons usages. During x-ray radiography of some of these aged components, prior to test firing, it was noted that some of the two-year old units had bridgewires missing and others had an unusual “halo” around them...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047856
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... by visual examination. The cracks were originated as circumferential cracks and then propagated transversely into the bearing-bore wall. No inclusions in the master rod were detected by magnetic-particle and x-ray inspection. Three large inclusions lying approximately parallel to the grain direction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... temperature is confined to a small area of the failure. All etched with nital. 500× Energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) analysis of the debris showed the major constituent to be iron with traces of phosphorus, manganese, sodium, calcium, copper, zinc, potassium, silicon, chromium, and molybdenum...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0089563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... reveals internal voids, such as gas porosity or shrinkage porosity, but does not detect a crack or a cold shut, unless the plane of the imperfection is nearly parallel to the x-ray beam and unless there is a finite opening; a cold shut that has its faces in contact is rarely revealed by radiography...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... that progressed through the weld metal and had been in existence long enough to allow the formation of corrosion products on the fracture surface. Energy-dispersive x-ray analyses (EDAX) of the corrosion products showed them to be high in iron, with silicon, phosphorus, calcium, and manganese in small amounts...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... as tungsten residue on welding backup rings from are strikes. These tungsten-rich areas had the same high-density characteristics as mercury on the x-ray film and were first misinterpreted as mercury contamination. When mercury was suspected as having been detected by radiography, these pipe weld areas were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001908
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... The Investigation At ARL, the two tailcones were subject to visual and radiographic inspection, chemical analysis, metallographic examination, hardness testing, tensile testing and scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Visual examination revealed the presence of “heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and second tube failures. Most deposits in the first and second failure may have been washed away by escaping steam. X-ray fluorescence spectra of the dust from the tube surface, showed lead, silicon, aluminum, and calcium as the predominant contaminants, with lesser concentrations of iron, chromium, nickel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... electron microscopy, EDXA, and x-ray mapping were used to study the steel in the vicinity of this part of the fracture surface. It was found to be contaminated with copper. Debye-Scherrer x-ray diffraction patterns obtained from the scale showed that it consisted of magnetite and hematite. It was concluded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... film techniques and are becoming widely available for specific failure analysis applications. Backscatter x-ray imaging, computed radiography, digital radiography, and computed tomography (CT) are available to investigate the volume of the component where traditional RT and UT techniques may...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in appearance. This was certainly a consequence of prolonged exposure at high temperature. Testing Procedure and Results Nondestructive Evaluation Radiography The tubing welds were routinely inspected by X-ray techniques for crack detection during shutdowns for maintenance. Analysis of X-ray...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Radiographs (x-ray and gamma-ray) show four large voids in a line along the weld. Figure 2 is an overlay of a gamma radiograph of this weld. The weld was mounted for metallographic purposes so that the pipe circumference was in the plane of study. Figure 6 shows a cross-sectional view of the weld during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... at the root of the weld, and led to LMIE crack propagation. Other mercury-contaminated welds were detected by x-ray radiography and removed, and the mercury absorption material was replaced. A similar failure has been reported in an aluminum alloy piping elbow in a cryogenic unit at an ethylene plant...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-contaminated welds were detected by x-ray radiography and removed, and the mercury absorption material was replaced. A similar failure has been reported in an aluminum alloy piping elbow in a cryogenic unit at an ethylene plant ( Fig. 1 ) ( Ref 6 , 7 ). In this case, the mercury was received in shipments...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is digital photography. The digital camera is incorporated in the scanning electron microscope. X-ray spectroscopy image photography may also be used for the recording of x-ray images and maps. Fig. 30 Setup for scanning electron microscopic examination of exemplar fractured crankshaft Fig. 31...