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X-ray powder diffraction

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 7 X-ray diffraction powder pattern identification of AuCN obtained from the indicated location on two different components. More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The article discusses the analysis and interpretation of base material composition and microstructures. Preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis are also discussed. The article...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... was characterized using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA). The powder was investigated by many techniques, but x-ray diffraction was the prime technique for identifying the corrosion products. Results The appearance of units aged at 88 C (190...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of testing in the residue paste was (1) linear polarization, (2) cathodic polarization, and (3) anodic polarization. X-Ray Diffraction and Elemental Analysis To identify the compounds and aggressive agent or agents present in the residue product both powder x-ray diffraction and microprobe analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... percentage by volume of austenite VC percentage by volume of undissolved ce- mentite Vc volume of untransformed austenite WDS wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy WES Welding Engineering Society wt% weight percent WQ water quenching XPS x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XRD x-ray diffraction XRDC x-ray powder...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of degradation that occurs at low temperatures. Based on the results of the investigation, which included SEM/EDS analysis, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction, the metal surfaces contained less than 0.1% Bi and thus were not adequately protected against tin pest, which was confirmed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual-stress analysis is an essential tool for failure analysis. This article focuses primarily on what the analyst should know about applying XRD residual-stress measurement techniques to failure analysis. Discussions are extended to the description of ways...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses primarily on what an analyst should know about applying X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual stress measurement techniques to failure analysis. Discussions are extended to the description of ways in which XRD can be applied to the characterization of residual stresses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... The more common ones, which are described briefly in this section, are x-ray analysis by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Energy-Dispersive X-Ray...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... electron microscopy, EDXA, and x-ray mapping were used to study the steel in the vicinity of this part of the fracture surface. It was found to be contaminated with copper. Debye-Scherrer x-ray diffraction patterns obtained from the scale showed that it consisted of magnetite and hematite. It was concluded...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... diffraction follows Bragg’s law: (Eq 5) nλ = 2 d sine θ where n is a constant (usually 1), λ is the wavelength of the x-ray, d is the interplanar spacing of the crystalline material, and sine θ is the experimental diffraction angle. A powder camera or diffractometer is used when...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or minerals, x-ray diffraction (XRD) can provide compositional information on crystalline phases and quantify those phases. Powder XRD is beneficial in identifying surface contaminants or corrosion products. In addition, XRD can provide information about the percentage of crystallinity in a sample...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... It consisted primarily of iron (77.6%), with copper, chromium, nickel, and manganese present in small amounts. x-ray diffraction (XRD) of the powder was carried out to determine its crystal structure. Results indicated the presence of alpha-iron ( Fig. 7 ). The electrical conductivity of the powder...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... corrosiveness of this product. The results of these actions were as follows: Chemical composition tests summarized in Table 2 indicate that the phosphorus and chlorine could have came from the fire retardant paint. X-ray diffraction studies showed the corrosion product to have the same crystal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... diffraction Penetrating rays of x-ray, gamma rays, or neutrons passing through or reflecting from test object cast shadows or patterns on film or digital imaging plates Manufacturing, weld inspection, finding objects in closed containments, metrology of enclosed objects, thickness Hazardous radiation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...) and powder x-ray diffraction (XRD). Fig. 4 presents EDS results for the bulk internal deposits from Sample 1. The EDS and XRD analysis results were similar for all four tube samples. XRD identified the iron oxide magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), metallic copper (Cu), the iron oxides hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) and wüstite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... using wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS) to verify the presence of fluorine. WDS can be used to detect elements of atomic number 5 (boron) and greater and has a detection limit on the order of 100 ppm. Crystalline compounds in the deposit samples were identified using powder x-ray diffraction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of such an analysis are semiquantitative and indicate the relative amounts of elemental constituents present. Crystalline compounds in the deposit were identified using powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The EDS spectrum and tabulated XRD results for the internal deposits removed from the cooler tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... identified using powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The internal deposits consisted of silicon oxide (SiO 2 ), potassium aluminum silicate (KAlSiO 4 ), calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ), and ammonium copper sulfite hydrate [(NH 4 ) 7 Cu(SO 2 ) 4 · 5H 2 O]. In addition to the elements contained...