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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract A crack was found in an aircraft main wing spar flange fabricated from 7079-T6 aluminum alloy during a routine nondestructive x-ray inspection after the craft had logged 300 h. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed an intergranular fracture pattern indicative of stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047856
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... revealed by visual examination. The cracks were originated as circumferential cracks and then propagated transversely into the bearing-bore wall. No inclusions in the master rod were detected by magnetic-particle and x-ray inspection. Three large inclusions lying approximately parallel to the grain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... flux leakage (MFL) inspection, ultrasonic testing (UT), and evaluation of the external cathodic protection (CP) system were used in the failure analysis. The corrosion products were analyzed using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The failure is attributed to the ingress of water and its...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... contained any stainless steel from the spacer. Other items for investigation were the nature of the bond between the galled spot and the inner cone and any evidence of overtempering or rehardening resulting from localized overheating. Analysis (visual inspection, electron probe x-ray microanalysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
..., visually inspected, and rotated 120 deg every three weeks to ensure that no single location was overheated for a prolonged period of time. Analysis (visual inspection, chemical analysis, metallographic examination, and x-ray analysis, 60x micrograph etched with 10% oxalic acid) supported the conclusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., nondestructive testing, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The tube was made from SA 210A1 carbon steel that had been compromised by wall thinning and the accumulation of fire and water-side scale deposits. Investigators determined that the tube failed due...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Although no cracks were found when the welds were visually inspected, X-ray radiography showed small discontinuous surface cracks adjacent to the weld bead in the heat affected zone. Further investigation, including optical microscopy, microhardness testing, and residual stress measurements, revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... pest, a type of degradation that occurs at low temperatures. Based on the results of the investigation, which included SEM/EDS analysis, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction, the metal surfaces contained less than 0.1% Bi and thus were not adequately protected against tin pest...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... been injection molded from a 30% glass-fiber and mineral-reinforced nylon 12 resin. Investigation, including visual inspection, 118x SEM images, 9x micrographs, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, micro-FTIR in the ATR mode, and TGA, supported the conclusion that the filter component failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... actuators had been nickel plated. During assembly of the actuators a lubricant containing molybdenum disulfide had been applied to the gaskets as a sealant. The vellum gasket was found to be electrically conductive, and analysis (visual inspection, 500x unetched micrographs, galvanic action testing, and x...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... inspection, x-ray spectrometry, and metallographic examination) supported the conclusion that the muffle failed by localized overheating in some areas to temperatures exceeding 1260 deg C (2300 deg F). The copper found near the holes had dripped to the floor from assemblies during brazing. The copper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0046981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of the valve. Analysis (visual inspection, electron probe x-ray microanalysis, hardness testing, 4.5x fractograph) supported the conclusions that failure of the valve stem occurred by fatigue as a result of a combination of a nonuniform bending load, which caused a mild stress-concentration condition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... from Stage 2 (where corrosion was low) and Stage 3 (severe corrosion) were taken and subjected to visual inspection, SEM, x-ray diffraction, microhardness measurement, and chemical and microstructural analysis. It was determined that extended non-operation of the plant resulted in the settlement...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0091897
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... failure occurred, requiring the collar, spacer sleeve, seal, roller bearing, and lock washer to be replaced. The shaft was made of 4140 steel, heat treated to a hardness of 20 to 26 HRC. The seal, bearing, and lock washer were commercial components. Investigation (visual inspection, 4.5x images, x-ray...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Specifications required hydrostatic testing to a pressure of 5780 kPa (838 psig), but the case burst at 3075 kPa (443 psi). Fabrication Visual Examination Magnetic-Particle Inspection Microhardness Surveys Microscopic Examination X-ray Diffraction Studies Chemical Analysis Bend Tests...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... on the inner surface, along with sooty residue. Patterns similar to those associated with erosion/corrosion damage were observed. Microstructural examination of wasted areas revealed a bulk matrix composed of massive carbides, indicating that gross carburization and metal dusting had occurred. X-ray...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... concerning the trusses was that they frequently contained splices. In the roof section that collapsed, all broken trusses failed at splices. Thus, the onsight inspection included x-ray inspection of the splices in the thirty trusses removed from the section adjacent to the section that collapsed in service...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., neutron radiographic testing, x-ray diffraction Penetrating rays of x-ray, gamma rays, or neutrons passing through or reflecting from test object cast shadows or patterns on film or digital imaging plates Manufacturing, weld inspection, finding objects in closed containments, metrology of enclosed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001381
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Mechanical Properties Most Probable Cause Remedial Action Optical Microstructure Scanning Electron Microscopy/Fractography X-Ray Analysis Table 1 compares the actual specimen composition, as determined by optical emission spectrometry, with nominal specifications for AISI E4340 steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... a preferential attack of the gold. To investigate the problem, a matrix of test units was produced and analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy, EDX analysis, and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to determine the extent of the corrosion and identify the corrosion products. The results indicated...