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X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by information on the operating principles and applications of detectors for x-ray spectroscopy, namely energy-dispersive spectrometers, wavelength-dispersive spectrometers, and handheld x-ray fluorescence systems. The processes involved in x-ray analysis in the SEM and handheld x-ray fluorescence analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... contained might have contributed to the failure. Its pH, leachable sodium, potassium, and lithium were analyzed. Colorimetric and the x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy were used to determine sulfur and chloride contents. The material was basic and had sufficiently low leachable impurities that intergranular...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001706
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... examined to check the consistency of the corrosion protection system. Analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) showed the presence of manganese phosphate coatings as primer on the inner and external surfaces of the failed truck beam. The phosphate coating was evaluated for void content, weight...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... optical microscopy revealing plating nodules in the nondiscolored area of the cylinder (left). A rougher surface texture is noted in the discolored region (right), along with adherent deposits. Nondestructive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was also conducted, using a portable analyzer, to compare...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...)-traceable standard composition. Equipment used for the analysis must receive proper maintenance, including assurance that adequate calibrations have been upheld. Methods such as x-ray fluorescence (XRF), arc or spark optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and inductively coupled plasma OES (ICP-OES) can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... If this information is not available, rapid, nondestructive, semiquantitative techniques such as energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) tools can be used to estimate the material composition in order to allow the chemical analyst to determine the proper techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... technique for quantitative elemental analysis, comparing it to a standard solution, and the argon plasma-excitation source is used to generate a signal at the analytical wavelength for each element. The accuracy of the analysis is 0.01 wt% of the measured value. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in the failure analysis [ 6 ]. And for these procedures, some specimens were prepared from the fractured blade. Optical microscopy was used to determine the microstructures of a blade, and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP), and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the unsharpness of fluorescent screens in real-time radiography often overshadows the effect of geometric unsharpness. It is important to consider the most convenient x-ray beamline orientation for the intended job. Some features are more frequent in machines with a specific beam orientation. A laminar...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-ray imaging spectroscopy associated with scanning electron microscopy typically uses digital photography for the recording of x-ray images and maps. Videographic cameras may also be used to record entire scanning electron microscopy examination sessions. High-speed videography has use in failure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be made in several ways, including wet analytical chemistry, ultraviolet/visible absorption spectroscopy, and molecular fluorescence spectroscopy. Additionally, x-ray diffraction analysis is particularly valuable in identifying constituent compounds. Other specialized techniques may be required...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... deposits were adhering to the outer diameter of the sheath. A large metallic drip remained on the damaged end of the sheath and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis indicated that the drip was mainly nickel and molybdenum. Small amounts of iron and chromium were also identified in this specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) spectroscopy Chemical shift of nuclei Mass spectroscopy Mass/charge of ions produced X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) Crystalline polymer component Small-angle x-ray diffraction X-ray scattering at low angle Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Surface and particle morphology Transmission...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001618
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy, Vickers microhardness, Rockwell macrohardness, and tensile tests. The optical microscopy etchant was nital (2% HNO 3 ). Chicago Spectrographic Laboratory performed chemistry analysis. The analysis techniques included x-ray fluorescence, glow discharge spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in the scanning electron microscope. X-ray spectroscopy image photography may also be used for the recording of x-ray images and maps. Fig. 30 Setup for scanning electron microscopic examination of exemplar fractured crankshaft Fig. 31 Scanning electron microscope backscatter image of exemplar...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the pipe, elbow, and weld metals, as determined by x-ray fluorescence, are given in Table 1 . Both the pipe and elbow were within the specifications for aluminum alloy 5083. The weld metal composition corresponded to the specification for 5183 filler metal. Results of chemical analysis Table 1...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Radiography uses x-rays or gamma rays, which are directed through the sample to a photographic film. After the film has been developed, it can be examined by placing it in front of a light source. The intensity of the light passing through the film will be proportional to the density of the sample...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., microfractography, chemical analysis, metallographic examination, electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, X-ray techniques, and simulations. It also describes the steps for analyzing the data, preparing the report, preservation of evidence, and follow-up on recommendations. References References...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ] on the grounds that: (i) the apparent EDS detection of cadmium on the dimpled overload areas was an artifact resulting from back-scattered electrons from the overload areas impinging on intergranular areas covered by cadmium, thereby generating secondary fluorescent X-rays with energies characteristic of cadmium...