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X-ray diffraction

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses primarily on what an analyst should know about applying X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual stress measurement techniques to failure analysis. Discussions are extended to the description of ways in which XRD can be applied to the characterization of residual stresses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... −62.6 −62.9 Standard deviation 0.7 1.1 Fig. 5 Results obtained from a steel four-point bend specimen in round-robin tests. The x-ray elastic constant (½ S 2 ) was determined to be 3.687 10 −5 ksi −1 . Fig. 6 X-ray diffraction (XRD) stress versus applied stress...
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 8 Effect of surface R a on x-ray diffraction stress measurements. (a) X-ray penetration depth is greater than R a . (b) X-ray penetration depth is less than R a . Source: Ref 35 More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 7 X-ray diffraction powder pattern identification of AuCN obtained from the indicated location on two different components. More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 11 X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of weld oxide More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 12 X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of oxide in vent pipe adjacent to bottom iron oxide trail More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 6 X-ray diffraction analysis of fractured surface in sample No. 4 More
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 16 X-ray diffraction results from sulfate deposits. More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 6 X-ray diffraction (XRD) stress versus applied stress for varying average roughness ( R a ). (a) Samples with R a of 1, 3, and 6 μm. (b) Samples with R a of 1, 40, and 56 μm. Source: Ref 35 More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 7 Ratio of measured stress (XRD, x-ray diffraction) and applied stress for varying average roughness, R a . Source: Ref 35 More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 9 X-ray diffraction stress versus applied stress on (a) as-received and (b) electropolished surfaces More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 14 X-ray diffraction residual-stress map showing the introduction of compressive surface residual stresses in the parent material and the reduction, but not elimination, of tensile residual stresses in the weld metal on the unmasked side from shot peening a nickel alloy weldment. Source More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 21 Theoretical model versus x-ray-diffraction-generated experimental data plots of residual stress versus number of cycles. Source: Ref 53 More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 28 X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual stress versus heat treatment temperature for various iron alloys. Specimens were held at temperature for 1 h and furnace cooled. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... electron microscopy, EDXA, and x-ray mapping were used to study the steel in the vicinity of this part of the fracture surface. It was found to be contaminated with copper. Debye-Scherrer x-ray diffraction patterns obtained from the scale showed that it consisted of magnetite and hematite. It was concluded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0090639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... to the cold-working coining process, and high residual stresses created by welding. Recommendations included the removal of the brittle, carbon-rich transformed martensite layer introduced by flame cutting and the application of a localized stress-relief heat treatment process. X-ray diffraction residual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... attack of the gold. To investigate the problem, a matrix of test units was produced and analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy, EDX analysis, and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to determine the extent of the corrosion and identify the corrosion products. The results indicated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... fatigue cracking in rolling-sliding contact applications. Based on the results of stress calculations and x-ray diffraction testing of steel samples, friction contributes to subsurface damage primary through its effect on the distribution of orthogonal shear stress. Although friction influences other...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... combustion products from the cartridges and corrosion products from the chamber, were analyzed using elemental analysis and x-ray diffraction techniques. Electrochemical polarization techniques were also utilized to estimate corrosion rates. Aerospace engines Aircraft components Breech chambers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Stage 2 (where corrosion was low) and Stage 3 (severe corrosion) were taken and subjected to visual inspection, SEM, x-ray diffraction, microhardness measurement, and chemical and microstructural analysis. It was determined that extended non-operation of the plant resulted in the settlement of corrosive...