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X-ray diffraction

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual-stress analysis is an essential tool for failure analysis. This article focuses primarily on what the analyst should know about applying XRD residual-stress measurement techniques to failure analysis. Discussions are extended to the description of ways...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses primarily on what an analyst should know about applying X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual stress measurement techniques to failure analysis. Discussions are extended to the description of ways in which XRD can be applied to the characterization of residual stresses...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 7 X-ray diffraction powder pattern identification of AuCN obtained from the indicated location on two different components. More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 11 X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of weld oxide More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 12 X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of oxide in vent pipe adjacent to bottom iron oxide trail More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 6 X-ray diffraction analysis of fractured surface in sample No. 4 More
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 16 X-ray diffraction results from sulfate deposits. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Chemical shift of nuclei Molecular structure, functional group determination, sequence distribution Mass spectroscopy Mass/charge of ions produced Molecular structure X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) Crystalline polymer component Crystalline structure, short- and long-range ordering, percent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... combustion products from the cartridges and corrosion products from the chamber, were analyzed using elemental analysis and x-ray diffraction techniques. Electrochemical polarization techniques were also utilized to estimate corrosion rates. Aerospace engines Aircraft components Breech chambers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0090639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... to the cold-working coining process, and high residual stresses created by welding. Recommendations included the removal of the brittle, carbon-rich transformed martensite layer introduced by flame cutting and the application of a localized stress-relief heat treatment process. X-ray diffraction residual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Stage 2 (where corrosion was low) and Stage 3 (severe corrosion) were taken and subjected to visual inspection, SEM, x-ray diffraction, microhardness measurement, and chemical and microstructural analysis. It was determined that extended non-operation of the plant resulted in the settlement of corrosive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... to the touch. Samples of deposits scraped from the aluminum spacer and the vellum gasket were identified by x-ray diffraction as molybdenum disulfide. Deposits taken from the nickel-plated steel housing were not completely identified. Analysis indicated, however, that nickel formate dihydrate was one...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... attack of the gold. To investigate the problem, a matrix of test units was produced and analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy, EDX analysis, and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to determine the extent of the corrosion and identify the corrosion products. The results indicated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0091897
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... occurred, requiring the collar, spacer sleeve, seal, roller bearing, and lock washer to be replaced. The shaft was made of 4140 steel, heat treated to a hardness of 20 to 26 HRC. The seal, bearing, and lock washer were commercial components. Investigation (visual inspection, 4.5x images, x-ray diffraction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... electron microscopy, EDXA, and x-ray mapping were used to study the steel in the vicinity of this part of the fracture surface. It was found to be contaminated with copper. Debye-Scherrer x-ray diffraction patterns obtained from the scale showed that it consisted of magnetite and hematite. It was concluded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Chemical analysis of the cracked metal showed a slightly higher level of carbon than in the component that did not crack. X-ray diffraction studies of material from the fractured dome showed a very low level of retained austenite, and chemical analysis showed a slightly higher content of carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... plasma spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction, the metal surfaces contained less than 0.1% Bi and thus were not adequately protected against tin pest, which was confirmed as the failure mechanism in the investigation. References References 1. Eckert A. : Organ pipes and tin pest . Mater...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... (a) NR, no requirement Fig. 11 Residual stresses in the 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) radius fillets of new cast brake discs and new stamped brake discs, as measured by X-ray diffraction. Fig. 1 Schematic of fracture area. Fig. 2 An SEM transverse of the entire fracture section revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.../energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. It was shown that degradation is driven by chemical and mechanical differences, oxide growth, depletion, and recrystallization, the combined effect of which results in exfoliation, spallation, and mechanical thinning. References References 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... life of the HH grade cast stainless steel bars was reduced from more than 7 years to approximately 9 months. Several corroded grate bars were examined metallographically and by electron microscopy to determine the causes of the accelerated corrosion. Chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses were also...