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Wrought superalloys

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Characterize wrought material by producing longitudinal and transverse sections. Each direction shows different information ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1 Wrought material is characterized by producing longitudinal and transverse sections. Each direction shows different information. (a) Medium-carbon steel plate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in the build. The types of microstructures also may vary. For example, the AM microstructure of Ti-6Al-4V, the most popular titanium alloy, is similar to the wrought product. In contrast, the AM microstructure of the nickel-base superalloy Inconel 718, a popular superalloy, appears to be a cross between...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article describes the general root causes of failure associated with wrought metals and metalworking. This includes a brief review of the discontinuities or imperfections that may be the common sources of failure-inducing defects in bulk working of wrought products. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is the absolute temperature. Figure 2 provides insight into the effect of temperature on inelastic deformation accumulation. The images are of the external surface of nickel-base superalloy test specimens. Both specimens were monotonically tested to an identical inelastic strain. One specimen was tested at room...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of the turbine. From other failures in the fleet, the disc was known to be prone to cracking in a similar location, resulting in release of turbine blades into the turbine flow path. The disc was manufactured from Discaloy (Westinghouse Electric Corporation), a wrought, iron-base superalloy (26% Ni, 13.5% Cr...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... superalloys, where the predominant mechanisms of crack initiation below 0.6 T m [2] is extensive Stage I cracking along persistent slip bands [ Ref 3 , 8 , 9 , 10 ]. This is true for both wrought and cast alloys. At temperatures greater than 0.5–0.6 T m , fatigue crack initiation usually occurs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... coatings that improve performance of superalloy. diffusion gas turbines high-temperature coatings high-temperature corrosion interdiffusion oxidation superalloys WHEN CORROSION FAILURES OCCUR at high temperatures (300 to 1700 °C, or 570 to 3090 °F), the unscheduled outages result in loss...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... ]. At Tennessee Eastman, some nozzles have been made of three alloys, as shown in Fig. 1 . The region of the most severe attack is right at the tip, where a wrought plate of Co-Cr alloy (Stellite 188) was used; this tip can be replaced and the nozzle reused if the other components are not damaged. For the rest...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and nozzles Alloy designation Description Alloys for blades and buckets Udimet 520 Wrought nickel-base alloy Udimet 500 Cast nickel-base alloy IN 738 Conventionally cast nickel-base alloy, high carbon IN 738LC Conventionally cast nickel-base alloy, low carbon DS CM 247 LC...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... from stress-rupture tests are generally erratic, even in replicate tests with data scatter at the same temperatures and stress, and variation in the measured strain at fracture varies with both stress and temperature. Ductility data are more erratic for castings than for wrought products. In some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., or calcium can be added to hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys to progressively change the silicon lamellae into rounded particles, and phosphorus refines the size of silicon particles in hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloys ( Ref 26 ). Microsegregation in wrought alloys is a microstructural defect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... (1400 °F) compared with values above 5% for the strongest wrought heat-resisting alloys. Because component designs are frequently based on 1% creep, a low stress-rupture ductility could preclude the use of an alloy to its full strength potential. As shown by the schematic creep curves in Fig. 9...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with 15% chromium. Another important characteristic that the chemist should be made aware of is whether the material has been wrought or is in an as-cast condition. As-cast products usually have more segregation than wrought products, so the sampling needs to be done from more layers of the material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... direction. Almost all materials, save perhaps parts made by powder metallurgy processes, demonstrate anisotropic behavior. Anisotropic behavior means that the mechanical properties are different in different directions. For the common wrought products such as bar, extrusion, plate, sheet, and so...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is quite significant and must be considered in making run/retire decisions. Fig. 14 Remaining life as a function of crack depth for cracks of types A, B, and C Figure 15 shows the crack initiation life as a function of strain range at 427 °C and at 538 °C for 2.25 Cr-1 Mo wrought material...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... striations. Source: Ref 16 Well-defined fatigue striations form in certain materials under appropriate stress ranges, particularly in metals with multiple active slip planes. For example, well-defined striations are frequently observed at intermediate growth rates in metals such as wrought aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... diffusing to internal defects or inclusions, where it precipitates as molecular (diatomic) hydrogen. This generates substantial pressure, which produces blisters. Shatter cracks, flakes, and fisheyes are terms that describe cracks or the surface appearance of a fracture in castings, forgings, wrought alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or inclusions, where it precipitates as molecular (diatomic) hydrogen. This generates substantial pressure, which produces blisters. Shatter cracks , flakes , and fisheyes are terms that describe cracks or the surface appearance of a fracture in castings, forgings, wrought alloys, or weldments...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-defined striations are frequently observed at intermediate growth rates in metals such as wrought aluminum and austenitic stainless steel. Examples of fatigue striations are presented in Fig. 32 to 36 . Fig. 34 Scanning electron microscopy view of fatigue striations in aluminum forging tested...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... high-velocity wet steam contacts a metal surface. The resulting attack usually produces a roughened surface showing a large number of small cones with the points facing in the direction of flow. Fig. 11 Classic appearance of erosion-corrosion in a CF-8M (cast equivalent of wrought AISI 316...