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Wrought iron

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...-welded. Furthermore, the welds were at the ends and not at the sides as is usual in the case of electrically-welded chains. A transverse section from one side of a link was examined microscopically. This showed the material to be wrought-iron of satisfactory quality. It was concluded this chain sling had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
...Abstract Abstract The century-old Harvard bridge spans the Charles River between Boston and Cambridge. About half of the 23 spans are suspended by wrought iron eyebars. Recent failures of some of these eyebars were examined. The primary cause of failure was the seizure of the joints...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... cobalt-chrome-molybdenum alloy ISO 5832-4 Wrought cobalt-chrome-tungsten- nickel alloy ISO 5832-5 Wrought cobalt-nickel-chrome- molybdenum alloy ISO 5832-6 Wrought cobalt-chrome-nickel- molybdenum-iron alloy ISO 5832-7 Wrought cobalt-nickel-chrome- molybdenum-tungsten-iron alloy ISO 5832...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... revealed that voids generally grew in the wrought material by uniform general corrosion. Tunneling or worm-holing was also observed, whereby void extension occurred by initiating daughter voids probably at flaws or other inhomogeneities. Selective attack occurred within the fusion zone, i.e., within...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... together. The rivets were made from wrought iron. This implies that fracture of the plates would not have occurred as the iceberg raked the hull for 100 m. There were examples of fracture with no ductile behavior observed on the edges of the plates recovered during the 1996 expedition. Because the bow...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and scanning electron microscopy fatigue strength ASTM F138 (wrought stainless steel) UNS S31673 Introduction Materials and Procedures Results Discussion Conclusion Acknowledgments References References 1. Azevedo C.R.F. , Hippert E. Jr , Failure analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... , Wiley , New York , 1971 . 12. Fontana M. G. , Corrosion Engineering , McGraw-Hill , New York , 1978 . 13. Hummer C.W. Jr. , “ The Corrosion of Metals in Tropical Environments-Copper and Wrought Copper Alloys ,” Materials Protection , Vol. 7 , p. 41 , 1968...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...% chromium. Another important characteristic that the chemist should be made aware of is whether the material has been wrought or is in an as-cast condition. As-cast products usually have more segregation than wrought products, so the sampling needs to be done from more layers of the material than may...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the formation of polythionic acid in the process gas. ring type pipe joint fracture polythionic acid stainless steel transgranular fracture fractography creep strength 347 (austenitic wrought stainless steel) UNS S34700 321 (austenitic wrought stainless steel) UNS S32100 Introduction...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the result of poor operations or improper materials selection, and thus often preventable. heat exchangers drain lines corrosion bacterial growth copper stainless steel pitting perforations microscopy corrosion resistance 304L stainless steel (austenitic wrought stainless steel) UNS S30403...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... {1,1,0} planes interact along the intersection of the two slip planes (a ⟨0,1,0⟩ direction) to create a pure edge sessile dislocation on a {1,0,0} plane, which is the incipient crack nucleus. Experimental work obtained results consistent with Cottrell's model using MgO ( Ref 17 ) and in iron ( Ref 18...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... using MgO ( Ref 17 ) and in iron ( Ref 18 ). As Ref 4 indicates, the work reported in Ref 13 supports such a model of dislocation interaction to create a cleavage nucleus. Specimens tested at 77 K could be made to flow plastically or to fail in a brittle manner, depending on specimen orientation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001531
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... a derailment with its attendant loss of life and property. Up to now, high volume cartwheels have been made of 0.47 to 0.8% carbon steel based on pearlite microstructure, and both wrought-steel and cast-steel wheels have been used in China and other countries. The current trend toward high speed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... • Washlo S.D. and Aggen G. , Wrought Stainless Steels , Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys , Vol 1 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1990 , p 841 – 907 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001046 The petrochemical industry is one of the most dynamic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
..., and HU cast headers and transfer lines were experienced. This was mainly due to lack of ductility of the cast alloys with an accompanying lack of resistance to thermal shock. Wrought Incoloy 800H, while not as strong as the cast alloys, possessed greater ductility and thermal shock resistance and became...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article describes the general root causes of failure associated with wrought metals and metalworking. This includes a brief review of the discontinuities or imperfections that may be the common sources of failure-inducing defects in bulk working of wrought products. The article...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... that is more than sufficient to offset the higher modulus of rigidity of the wrought compared with that of the cast material. It cannot be emphasised too strongly that a fabricated structure requires to be designed as such and to produce it simply as a lightened version of a casting that has given satisfactory...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... 2 O, and 30 cm 3 (1 fl oz) H 2 O 2 (3% solution) for approximately 5 s, and then water rinsed. The resulting microstructure in the pipe material ( Fig. 4 ) was typical of wrought aluminum bronze material (α phase). This microstructure was found in all of the specimens examined. The socket-weld...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., enrichment, or adsorption. In wrought high-strength heat treatable aluminum alloys, paths of stress-corrosion cracks are always intergranular, because the thermal treatments required to achieve high strength never completely eliminate the electrochemical potential between grain boundaries and grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in their effects on stainless steels. In some environments, the cast structure of a nickel weld may be anodic to the wrought parent metals. The combination of their passive surface with their inherent resistance places nickel-chromium alloys such as Inconel alloy 600 and Hastelloy alloy C-276 in more noble...